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Caroline Torie Wsbt Bio, Age, Family, Married, Net Worth, And Salary? Best 282 Answer

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Caroline Torie Biography

Caroline Torie is an American journalist born and raised in Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America. She currently works at WSBT-TV in South Bend, IN as a presenter and reporter. Before joining WSBT-TV, Torie worked as a presenter and content writer at Styrk in Asbury Park, NJ for a year and a half.

She hosts the weekend evening editions of WSBT 22 News and WSBT 22 first mornings during the week.

Torie Early Life

Caroline was born and raised in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. The news anchor attended North Allegheny Senior High School as a high school senior.

Caroline Torie Age

Caroline’s age, date of birth and birthday are not publicly available. We will update this section as soon as this information becomes available.

Caroline Torie Height

Caroline is of average height and moderate weight. She appears to be quite tall judging by her photos compared to her surroundings. However, details of her actual height and other body measurements are not publicly available at this time. We are monitoring the information and will update this information as it is released.

Caroline Torie Education

Caroline attended high school at North Allegheny High School from 2005 to 2009. She joined DePauw University in Greencastle, IN in 2009, where she majored in Political Science and Communications with two majors and graduated in 2013.

In her free time, the news anchor enjoys exploring her new home, watching sports and movies, traveling and eating pizza and pasta.

Caroline Torie Family

Caroline was born and raised in Pittsburgh, PA to both parents. Our efforts to find out more about her family have been unsuccessful as such information is not publicly available. Therefore, the entity of Torie’s parents is still unclear. It is also not known if she has siblings. However, as soon as information about her father, mother, brothers and siblings becomes available, we will update all of her family members without delay.

Caroline Torie Husband and Married

Caroline has not gone public with her relationship, it is not publicly known if she is married or in a relationship. Notwithstanding, Torie’s partner will be informed as soon as possible.

Caroline Torie Net Worth

As a presenter at WSBT-TV, Caroline undoubtedly earns a good salary and has accumulated a good fortune. However, her exact net worth has not yet been revealed, although the information will be updated as soon as it becomes available.

Caroline Torie Measurements and Facts

Here are some interesting facts and body measurements you should know about Caroline.

Caroline Torie Bio and Wiki

Full Names: Caroline Torie.

Popular as: Caroline Torie WSBT 22.

Gender Female.

Profession / Occupation: Journalist.

Nationality: American.

Race/Ethnicity: White.

Religion: Not known.

Sexual orientation: Hetero.

Caroline Torie Birthday

Age / How old?: N/A.

Zodiac: N/A.

Date of birth: N/A.

Place of Birth: Pittsburgh, PA.

Birthday: N/A.

Caroline Torie Body Measurements

Body measurements: Not available.

Height / How tall?: Unknown.

Weight: Not known.

Eyecolour Brown.

Hair Color: Dark Brown.

Shoe size: Not available.

Dress size: Not available.

Breast size: Not available.

Waist size: Not available.

Hips: Not available.

Caroline Torie Family and Relationship

Father (Father): Unknown.

Mother: Not known.

Siblings (brothers and sisters): Not known.

Marital status Unmarried.

Husband/Spouse: Not applicable.

Dating / Boyfriend: Single.

Children: sons (none) daughter(s) (none).

Caroline Torie Net Worth and Salary

Net worth: Will be verified.

Salary: $61,000.

Source of income: journalism.

Caroline Torie House and Cars

Resence: South Bend, IN.

Cars: Car brand is updated.

Caroline Torie WSBT News

Caroline currently works as a presenter, reporter and multimedia journalist at WSBT22 in South Bend, IN. She joined WSBT22 in August 2016. She hosts the weekend evening news show on WSBT 22. Torie began her writing career while still at DePauw University. From August 2011 to May 2012 she was program director for WGRE Radio at DePauw University.

Ase from journalism, Torie has also worked as a sales representative for Famous Footwear, where she was tasked with acting as a cashier and helping customers.

In addition, Torie worked as Sales Director at WGRE Radio between August 2012 and May 2013. Immediately after graduating, Caroline joined Stratacomm in Washington D.C., where she worked as an intern. She also served for a year as an administrative assistant for the Brawner Company.

Most recently, she worked as a presenter and content writer at Styrk in Asbury Park, NJ. She was hired to research, write stories and anchor news from September 2014 to February 2016.

Caroline Torie Filmography | TV Shows

WSBT-TV (South Bend, IN).

KOMO TV (Seattle, WA).

WJLA-TV (Arlington, VA).

KUTV-TV (Salt Lake City, UT).

WKRC-TV (Cincinnati, OH).

WPEC-TV (West Palm Beach, FL).

WSYX-TV (Columbus, OH).

WHAM-TV (Rochester, NY).

WSES-TV (Birmingham, AL).

WWMT-TV (Kalamazoo, MI).

WCIV TV (Mount Pleasant, SC).

KABB-TV (San Antonio, TX).

WBFF-TV (Baltimore, MD).

WTTE-TV (Columbus, OH).

KOKH-TV (Oklahoma City, OK).

WCYB-TV (Bristol, VA).

WCTI-TV (New Bern, NC). WRGT-TV (Miamisburg, OH).

WHP-TV (Harrisburg, PA).

KTVL-TV (Medford, OR).

Caroline Torie Awards, Honors, Achievements

WGRE Award from DePauw University Faculty Advisor – 2013


DePauw University GD Crain Award – 2013


Tiger Award from the DePauw Field Hockey Team – 2012


FAQs About Caroline Torie?

Who is Caroline Torie?

Caroline is a well-known news reporter, presenter and multimedia journalist for WSBT 22. Before joining WSBT 22, she worked as a presenter and content writer for Styrk.

How old is Caroline Torie?

Torie was born in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, she has not shared her date of birth with the public as it is not documented anywhere as of 2020.

How tall is Caroline Torie?

Caroline is of average height, she has not shared her height with the public. Even so, their size will be listed once we have it from a credible source.

Is Caroline Torie married?

Details about her love life are still under investigation. We’ll let you know when she starts a relationship or when we discover helpful information about her love life.

How much is Caroline Torie worth?

Caroline has yet to reveal her net worth. We will update this section as we receive and verify information about the assets and properties under her name.

How much does Caroline Torie make?

Based on our average wage estimates for a WSBT 22 journalist in the United States, Torie earns an average annual salary of $61,000, which equates to an average hourly wage of $29.33.

Where does C Torie live?

She lives in South Bend, IN, USA. Also, as soon as we have their exact location, we will upload pictures of their house immediately.

Is C Torie dead or alive?

Caroline is alive and in good health.

Where is C Torie Now?

Torie pursues her career in journalism. She has worked as a news reporter and presenter at WSBT 22 since August 2016.

Caroline Torie WSBT 22 Social Media Contacts

Instagram: N/A




Youtube: N/A

Tiktok: N/A.


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We acknowledge the following websites that we referenced when writing this article:





Instagram and.


Who is Caroline Torie?

Caroline is a well-known news reporter, presenter and multimedia journalist for WSBT 22. Before joining WSBT 22, she worked as a presenter and content writer for Styrk.

How old is Caroline Torie?

Torie was born in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, she has not shared her date of birth with the public as it is not documented anywhere as of 2020.

How tall is Caroline Torie?

Caroline is of average height, she has not shared her height with the public. Even so, their size will be listed once we have it from a credible source.

Is Caroline Torie married?

Details about her love life are still under investigation. We’ll let you know when she starts a relationship or when we discover helpful information about her love life.

How much is Caroline Torie worth?

Caroline has yet to reveal her net worth. We will update this section as we receive and verify information about the assets and properties under her name.

How much does Caroline Torie make?

Based on our average wage estimates for a WSBT 22 journalist in the United States, Torie earns an average annual salary of $61,000, which equates to an average hourly wage of $29.33.

Where does C Torie live?

She lives in South Bend, IN, USA. Also, as soon as we have their exact location, we will upload pictures of their house immediately.

Is C Torie dead or alive?

Caroline is alive and in good health.

Where is C Torie Now?

Torie pursues her career in journalism. She has worked as a news reporter and presenter at WSBT 22 since August 2016.

Caroline Torie WSBT 22 Social Media Contacts

Instagram: N/A




Youtube: N/A

Tiktok: N/A.


Related Biography.

You may also want to read the Biography, Career, Family, Relationship, Body Measurements, Net worth, Achievements and more about:

Bob Montgomery.

Jennifer Copeland.

Abby Weppler.

Matthew Rudkin.


We acknowledge the following websites that we referenced when writing this article:





Instagram and.


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Bonnie Bio, Age, Height, Weight, Family, Boyfriend, and Networth
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University of Notre Dame

Private university in Notre Dame, Indiana

For other universities and colleges named “Notre Dame”, see Notre Dame (disambiguation)

The University of Notre Dame du Lac, known simply as Notre Dame (NOH-tər-DAYM) or ND, is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana, on the outskirts of the city of South Bend. [7] The school was founded by French priest Edward Sorin in 1842. The main campus covers 1,261 acres (510 acres) in a suburban setting and contains landmarks such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural (commonly known as Touchdown Jesus). ), Notre Dame Stadium, and the Basilica.

Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States. [8] [9] [10] The university is organized into seven schools and colleges. Notre Dame’s graduate program includes more than 50 master’s, doctoral and professional degrees offered by six schools, including Notre Dame Law School and an MD – PhD program offered in conjunction with Indiana University School of Medicine. [11] [ 12] The School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers more than 50 years of study abroad programs and more than 15 summer programs. [13] It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues, artistic and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. Most of the university’s 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 33 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies, events, and intramural sports teams. The university’s approximately 134,000 alumni make up one of the strongest college alumni networks in the U.S. [14] [15] [16]

The university’s athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century; the team, an Independent with no affiliation with the conference, has accumulated 11 consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, 62 members of the College Football Hall of Fame, and 13 of the Pro Football Hall of Fame. [17] Notre Dame teams in other sports, mainly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships. [18] “Victory March” is one of the most popular and recognized collegiate fight songs.

Notre Dame’s profile grew in the early 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under coach Knute Rockne. Major improvements to the university took place during Theodore Hesburgh’s administration between 1952 and 1987. His administration increased the university’s resources, academic programs, and its reputation. The university first enrolled female undergraduates in 1972. Since then, the university has seen steady growth, and under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, extensive infrastructure and research expansion. the finished. Notre Dame’s growth has continued into the 21st century; by the end of fiscal year 2021, its endowment was worth $ 18.07 billion, one of the largest among U.S. universities. [19]

History [edit]

Foundations [edit]

In 1842, the bishop of Vincennes, Célestin Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin, C.S.C. of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build the college within two years. [20] Stephen Badin, the first priest ordained in the United States, to go to the place invited by Potawatomi chief Leopold Pokagon to serve his tribe, bought 524 acres (212 acres) of this land in 1830. Sorin arrived in the area with the eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, and the school was started using the old log chapel of Badin. After enrolling two students, Sorin soon built more buildings, including the Old College, the first church, and the first main building. [21] Notre Dame began as an elementary and secondary school; in 1844 it received the college’s official charter from the Indiana General Assembly, [22] under the name University of Notre Dame du Lac (University of Our Lady of the Lake).[a] Because the university was originally male, the Sisters of the Holy Cross founded the female-only Saint Mary’s College near Notre Dame in 1844. [24]

Early history [edit]

The college awarded its first degrees in 1849. [25] As it grew under the leadership of Sorin and his successors, new academic programs were offered and new buildings were constructed to accommodate the growing population of students and faculty. [26] [22] Patrick Dillon’s brief presidency (1865–1866) saw the original main building replaced by a larger building, which housed the university administration, classrooms, and dormitories. Under William Corby’s first administration, the enrollment at Notre Dame of over 500 students. In 1869, he opened the law school, offering a two-year course of study, and in 1871 he began building the Sacred Heart Church, now the Basilica of the Sacred Heart. Two years later, Auguste Lemonnier started a library in the Main Building, with 10,000 volumes in 1879. [27]

The current Main Building, built after the great fire in 1879

A fire destroyed the Main Building and the library collection in April 1879; the school closed immediately and the students were sent home. [28] Sorin (then provincial Superior) and President Corby immediately planned for the rebuilding of the structure that covered almost the entire university. Construction began on May 17, and with the incredible zeal of administrators and workers, the third and current Main Building was completed before the fall semester of 1879. The library collection was rebuilt and placed in the new Main Building. [29]

The presidency of Thomas E. Walsh (1881–1893) was focused on improving Notre Dame’s scholastic reputation and standards. At that time, many students went to Notre Dame only for its business courses and did not graduate. [30] Walsh started a “Belles Lettres” program and invited many well-known lay intellectuals such as writer Maurice Francis Egan to campus. [31] Washington Hall was built in 1881 as a theater, [32] and the Science Hall (now the LaFortune Student Center) was built in 1883 to house the science program (founded in 1880) and numerous classrooms and laboratories. science. [33] The construction of Sorin Hall saw the first freestanding residence hall on campus and one of the first in the country to have private rooms for students, a project defended by Sorin and John Zahm. [34] [35] During Walsh’s tenure, Notre Dame began its football program and was awarded the first Laetare Medal. [36] The Law School was reorganized under the leadership of William J. Hoynes (dean from 1883 to 1919), and when its new building opened after his death, it was renamed in honor. [37]

Growth [edit]

John Zahm was the Holy Cross Provincial for the United States from 1898 to 1906, with general university administration. He sought to modernize and expand Notre Dame by constructing buildings and adding a campus art gallery and library, compiling what became Dante’s famous collection, and pushing Notre Dame toward becoming a research university focused on scholarship. The congregation did not renew Zahm’s term for fear that he would expand Notre Dame too quickly and run the order into serious debt. [37] In particular, his vision to make Notre Dame a research university was contrary to the view of Andrew Morrissey (president from 1893 to 1905), who hoped to keep the institution a smaller boarding school. [38] Morrissey’s presidency remained more focused on younger students and saw the construction of the Grotto, the addition of wings to Sorin Hall, and the construction of the first gymnasium. By 1900, student enrollment had risen to over 700, with most students still taking the Commercial Course. [39]

The movement toward a research university was adopted after John W. Cavanaugh, who reformed educational standards.An intellectual figure known for his literary gifts and for his eloquence, he dedicated himself to the academic reputation of the school and to the increasing number of students awarded bachelor’s and master’s degrees. As part of his efforts, he attracted many prominent scholars, established a journalism chair, and introduced chemical engineering courses. During his time as president, Notre Dame quickly became a significant force on the football field. [40] In 1917, Notre Dame awarded its first degree to a woman, and its first bachelor’s degree in 1922. However, female undergraduates were uncommon until 1972. [41] James A. Burns became president in 1919 and, following in Cavanaugh’s footsteps, he spearheaded an academic revolution that brought the school to national standards by using the elective system and moving away from the traditional scholastic and classical emphasis. for three years. [42] [43] In contrast, Jesuit colleges, bastions of academic conservatism, were reluctant to move to an elective system; for this reason, Harvard Law School shut down their graduates. [44] Notre Dame continued to grow, adding more colleges, programs, residence halls, and sports teams. [45] [46] By 1921, with the addition of the College of Commerce, [45] Notre Dame had grown from a small college to a university with five colleges and a law school. [47]

The University of Notre Dame in 1903President Matthew Walsh (1922–1928) met the material needs of the university, especially the $ 10,000 debt and the lack of space for new students. When he took over the presidency, more than 1,100 students lived off -campus while only 135 students paid for room and board. Using the fundraising money, Walsh focused on building the dormitory system. He built Freshman Hall in 1922 and Sophomore Hall in 1923, and began building Morrissey, Howard and Lyons Halls between 1924 and 1925. [48] In 1925, enrollment increased to 2,500 students, of which 1,471 lived on campus; Faculty members increased from 90 to 175. On the academic side, credit hours were reduced to encourage in-depth study, and Latin and Greek were no longer required for a degree. In 1928, three years of college were made a requirement for studying law. [49] Walsh expanded the College of Commerce, enlarged the stadium, completed the South Dining Hall, and built the memorial and entrance transept of the Basilica. [50] [51]

One of the main drivers of the university’s growth was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish. [52] Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under him, the Irish would put up a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five draws. [53] In his 13 years, the Irish have won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl Game in 1925, and produced players like George Gipp and the “Four Horsemen”. Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne’s offenses used the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran 7–2–2 runs. [54] The last game Rockne taught was on December 14, 1930, when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City. [55]

Notre Dame’s success reflects the rising status of Irish Americans and Catholics in the 1920s. Catholics rallied in the group and listened to radio games, especially as it defeated teams from schools that symbolized the Protestant establishment in America — Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and the Army. [52] Its role as a high-profile flagship institution of Catholicism has made it an easy target of anti-Catholicism. The most impressive stage of violence was a clash in 1924 between students of Notre Dame and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK), a white supremacist and anti-Catholic movement. The Klan decided to hold a Klavern week in South Bend.Clashes with the student’s body began on May 17, when students blocked Klansmen from getting off their trains at South Bend station and tore KKK clothes and regalia. Two days later, thousands of students gathered downtown to protest Klavern, and only the arrival of college president Walsh prevented any further clashes. The next day, Rockne spoke at a campus rally and pleaded with students to follow Walsh and avoid further violence. A few days later, Klavern split, but the hostility shown by the students contributed to the collapse of the KKK in Indiana. [56] [57]

Expansion in the 1930s and 1940s [edit]

The South Quad, built in the 1920s – 1940s, contains many residential halls

Charles L. O’Donnell (1928–1934) and John Francis O’Hara (1934–1939) encouraged both material and academic expansion. During their tenure at Notre Dame, they brought many refugees and intellectuals to campus; such as W. B. Yeats, Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, established in 1883. O’Hara also concentrated on expanding the graduate school. [58] New construction includes Notre Dame Stadium, the law school building, Rockne Memorial, several residential halls, Cushing Hall of Engineering, and a new heating plant. This rapid expansion, costing the university more than $ 2.8 million, was made possible in large part by football revenues. O’Hara strongly believes that the Fighting Irish football team can be an effective way to “introduce the public to the ideals that prevail” at Notre Dame. He wrote, “Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said:‘ Whether you eat or drink, or whatever you doing, you do everything for the glory of God, ‘with him football. “[59]

During World War II, O’Donnell offered Notre Dame facilities to the armed forces. The Navy accepted his offer and installed Naval Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) units on campus as part of the V-12 Navy College Training Program. [60] Shortly after the installation, there were only a few hundred civilian students in Notre Dame. O’Donnell continued O’Hara’s work in graduate school. He even formalized the graduate program and replaced the previous graduate studies committee with a dean. [61]

John J. Cavanaugh, president from 1946 to 1952, devoted his efforts to raising academic standards and reshaping the university administration to better serve its educational mission and an expanded body. of the student. He emphasized advanced studies and research as the university student population quadrupled, with undergraduate enrollment seeing an increase of more than half, and graduate student enrollment growing fivefold. . Cavanaugh founded the Lobund Institute for Animal Studies and the Medieval Institute of Notre Dame, [62] led the construction of the Nieuwland Science Hall, Fisher Hall, and Morris Inn, and the Hall of Liberal Arts (now O’Shaughnessy Hall), became possible. by a donation from I. A. O’Shaughnessy, at the time the greatest achievement of a Catholic university in America. [63] He also established the university’s system of advisory councils. [64] [65]

Hesburgh period: 1952–1987 [edit]

Theodore Hesburgh served as president for 35 years (1952–1987). Under his presidency, Notre Dame underwent significant development and transformation from a school largely known for its football to a leading university, academic powerhouse, and prominent Catholic university. [66] [67] ] [68] [69] The annual operating budget increased a factor of 18, from $ 9.7 million to $ 176.6 million; the endowment by a factor of 40, from $ 9 million to $ 350 million; and research funding by a factor of 20, from $ 735,000 to $ 15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600; teachers more than doubled from 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500. [70]Hesburgh made Notre Dame coeducational. Women have graduated annually since 1917, but most are religious sisters in graduate programs. [71] In the mid-1960s, Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s College developed a co-exchange program in which several hundred students took classes not offered at their home institution, an arrangement that added undergraduate women to a campus that already has some women in graduate schools. . After extensive debate, the inclusion in St. Mary was rejected, mainly because of differences in teachers ’qualifications and salary scales. “In American college education,” explains Charles E. Sheedy, Notre Dame’s dean of Arts and Letters, “some features that were once considered useful and enviable are now seen as anachronistic and out of place …. In this environment of diversity, gender integration is a normal and expected aspect, replacing separatism. ” Thomas Blantz, vice president of Student Affairs at Notre Dame, added that coeducation “opened up another group of brilliant students”. [72] Two of the residence halls were converted for newly accepted female students in the first year, [73] [74] with two more converted in the next school year. [75] [76 ] In 1971, Mary Ann Proctor, a transfer from St. Mary’s, became the first female undergraduate. The following year, Mary Davey Bliley became the first woman to graduate from university, with a bachelor’s degree in marketing. [77] [78]

In 1978, a historic district consisting of 21 contributing buildings was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. [79]

Recent history [edit]

In the 18 years that Edward Malloy has been president, the school’s reputation, teachers, and resources have grown rapidly. [80] [81] [82] He added more than 500 professors and the academic quality of the student body improved drastically, with the average Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) score rising from 1240 to 1460. The number of minority students was over doubling, the endowment grew from $ 350 million to more than $ 3 billion, the annual operating budget increased from $ 177 million to more than $ 650 million, and annual research funding improved from $ 15 million to more than $ 70. million. [80]

Notre Dame’s most recent capital campaign (2014) raised $ 2.014 billion, far exceeding its $ 767 million goal. It was the largest in the history of Catholic higher education, and the largest of any university without a medical school at the time. [83]

John I. Jenkins replaced Malloy in 2005. [84] [85] In his inaugural speech, Jenkins described his goals to make the university a leader in research that recognizes ethics and builds the connection between faith and learning. During his tenure, Notre Dame increased its endowment, enlarged its student body, and underwent numerous construction projects on campus, including the Compton Family Ice Arena, a new architectural hall, and additional residences. hall. [86] Announced as an integration of “academia, student life and athletics,” [87] construction on the 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) Campus Crossroads project began around Notre Dame Stadium in November 2014. Its three buildings —Duncan Student Center (west), Corbett Family Hall (east) and O’Neill Hall (south) house student life services, an indoor gym, a recreation center, the career center, a 500-seat student ballroom, the departments of anthropology and psychology, a digital media center and the department of music and sacred music programs. [88]

Campus [edit]

A view of the old part of the campus, with the Basilica and Main Building

The Notre Dame campus is located in Notre Dame, Indiana, an unincorporated community in the Michiana area of ​​Northern Indiana, north of South Bend, four miles (6.4 km) from the Michigan state line. [89] Development of the campus began in the spring of 1843, when Edward Sorin and some of his congregation built the Old College, which was used as a residence, a bakery, and a classroom. A year later, after an architect arrived, the first Main Building was built, and in the following decades, the university expanded.[90] [91] Today it is 1,250 hectares (5.1 km2) just south of Indiana Toll Road and includes approximately 170 buildings and athletic fields located around its two lakes and seven quadrangles. [92]

Historic sites of the United States

It continues to be ranked and admired as one of the most beautiful university campuses in the United States and around the world, and is known primarily for the Golden Dome, Basilica and its stained glass windows, quads and greenery, Grotto, Touchdown. Jesus, and its statues and museums. [94] [95] [96] [97] [98] Notre Dame is a major tourist attraction in northern Indiana; in the 2015–2016 academic year, more than 1.8 million visitors, nearly half of whom were from outside St. Joseph County, visited the campus. [99]

A 116-acre (47 ha) historic district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 as the University of Notre Dame: Main and South Quadrangles. The district includes 21 contributing buildings to the core of the original campus such as the Main Administration Building and the Basilica. [79]

Administration and academic buildings [edit]

The Main Building serves as the center for the university’s administrative offices, including the Office of the President. Its golden dome, dominated by a statue of Mary, is the campus’s most recognizable landmark. When the second iteration of the main building burned down in 1879, the third and current structure was built in record time. The main building is located on the Main Quad (also known as the “God Quad”), which is the oldest, most historic, and most central part of campus. Behind the main building stands several facilities for administrative purposes and student services, including Carole Sadner Hall, Brownson Hall, and St. Louis. Liam’s Hall, the campus health center.

There are several religious buildings [100] The current Basilica of the Sacred Heart is on the site of the original church of Sorin, which became too small for the growing college. It was built in the French Revival style, with stained glass windows imported from France. Luigi Gregori, an Italian painter whom Sorin invited to be a painter at the residence, painted the interior. The basilica also features a bell tower with a carillon. Inside the church, there are sculptures by Ivan Meštrović. The Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes, built in 1896, serves as a replica of the original in Lourdes and a famous place for prayer and meditation. [101] The Old College building became one of two seminaries on campus managed by the Congregation of Holy Cross.

The Golden Dome, built under Sorin, became a symbol of the university

Academic buildings are concentrated in the Center-South and Center-East sections of the campus. McCourtney Hall, an interdisciplinary research facility, opened its doors for the fall of the 2016 semester, and broke ground on the 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) Walsh Family Hall of Architecture at the south end of campus near DeBartolo Performing Arts Center opened. in the fall of 2018. [102] Since 2004, several buildings have been added, including the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center, [103] the Guglielmino Complex, [104] and the Jordan Hall of Science. [105] A new engineering building, Stinson-Remick Hall, a new combination Center for Social Concerns/Institute for Church Life building, Geddes Hall, and a law school addition were completed simultaneously. [106] Many academic buildings were built with a system of libraries, the best known of which was the Hesburgh Library, which was built in 1963 and now contains nearly four million books. The Stayer Center for Executive Education, which houses the Mendoza College of Business Executive Education Department, opened in March 2013 just South of the Mendoza College of Business building.

Residential and student buildings [edit]

There are 31 undergraduate residence halls.Most of the graduate students on campus live in one of the four graduate housing complexes on campus. A new residence for men, Dunne Hall, began accepting residents in the fall of 2016. Flaherty Hall, for women, was also completed and opened that semester. The South Dining Hall and North Dining Hall serve the student body.

Fall into the Main Quadrangle

The campus hosts several recreational, general purpose, and common spaces.The LaFortune Student Center, commonly known as “LaFortune” or “LaFun,” is a four-story building built in 1883 that serves the student union and hosts social, recreational, cultural activities, and educational. [107] [108] LaFortune hosts many businesses (including restaurant chains), student services, and divisions of The Office of Student Affairs. [107] [109] The second student union came with the addition of the Duncan Student Center, which was built at Notre Dame Stadium as part of the Campus Crossroads projects. As well as additional food service chains, recreation facilities, and a student office, Duncan also hosts a student gym and ballroom.

[110] Historic Washington Hall in the Main Quadrangle, popularly called the “God Quad”

Athletics facilities [edit]

Due to its long athletic tradition, the university features numerous sports buildings, which are concentrated on the southern and eastern parts of the campus. The most famous are Notre Dame Stadium, [111] home of the Fighting Irish football team; it has been renovated several times and now can seat over 80,000 people. Notable areas include the Edmund P. Joyce Center, with indoor basketball and volleyball courts, and the Compton Family Ice Arena, [112] a facility with two rinks dedicated to hockey. There are many outdoor fields, such as Frank Eck Stadium for baseball. [113]

Legends of Notre Dame (commonly called Legends) is a music venue, public house, and restaurant on campus, 100 yards (91 m) south of the stadium. The former Alumni Senior Club [114] opened in September 2003 after a $ 3.5 million renovation and became an all-ages student hang-out. The legends consist of two parts: The Restaurant and Alehouse and the nightclub. [115]

Environmental conservation [edit]

The Office of Sustainability was created in the fall of 2007 on the recommendation of a Sustainability Strategy Working Group and appointed its first director in April 2008. The pursuit of sustainability is directly related to the Catholic mission of the university. [116] In his encyclical Laudato si ’, Pope Francis said,“ We ​​need a conversation that includes all, because the environmental challenge we are going through, and its human roots, cares and affects us all. . ”[117] Other campus -focused resources and centers. on sustainability with the Environmental Change Initiative, Environmental Research Center, and the Center for Sustainable Energy at Notre Dame. [118] The university also houses the Kellogg Institute for International Peace Studies.

Notre Dame received a gold rating from the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) in 2014; in 2017 it was downgraded to silver. [119] In 2016, the Office of Sustainability released its Comprehensive Sustainability Strategy to achieve its objectives in the broad area of ​​university operations. [120] As of November 2020, 17 buildings have achieved LEED-Certified status, of which 12 have earned Gold certification. [121] Notre Dame’s dining service sources 40 percent of its food locally and offers sustainably catching seafood and many organic, fair-trade, and vegan options. [122] In 2019, improvements to irrigation systems will lead to 244 million fewer gallons of water used and a 50 percent reduction in water consumption over 10 years. [123]

In 2015, Notre Dame announced key environmental sustainability goals, including eliminating coal use by 2020 and reducing its carbon footprint by half by 2030. [118] Both of these goals were reached in early 2019. [124] [125] This is achieved through the implementation of energy conservation, energy efficiency strategies, temperature setpoints, low water flow devices, and diversification of its energy resources and infrastructure. [124] New renewable energy sources on campus include geothermal wells at East Quad and Notre Dame Stadium, replacing boilers with gas turbines, solar panels at Fitzpatrick Hall and Stinson-Remick Hall and off-campus, a hydroelectric facility at Seitz Park in South Bend powered by St. Joseph River, and heat recovery techniques.[126] [125] [118] Future projects outlined by the university utilities’ long-range plan include the continued diversification of its energy portfolio, future geothermal wells with new buildings and several current facility, and a partnership with the South Bend Solar Project. Current goals include cutting Notre Dame’s carbon footprint by 83 percent by 2050 and eventually becoming carbon neutral, diverting 67 percent of all waste from landfills by of 2030. [118] [125] [124]

Global Gateways [edit]

The university owns several centers around the world used for international studies and research, overseas conferences, and alumni support. [127]

London. The university has had a presence in London since 1968. Since 1998, its London center has been based in Fischer Hall, the former United University Club in Trafalgar Square. The center hosts university programs in the city, and conferences and symposia. [128] The university also owns a residence facility, Conway Hall, for students studying abroad. [129]

. The university has had a presence in London since 1968. Since 1998, its London center has been based in Fischer Hall, the former United University Club in Trafalgar Square. The center hosts university programs in the city, and conferences and symposia. The university also owns a residence facility, Conway Hall, for students studying abroad. Beijing. The university owns space in the Liangmaqiao Station area. The center is the center of Notre Dame Asia. It hosts several programs including study abroad. [130]

Dublin. The university owns O’Connell House, a building in Merrion Square in the heart of Georgian Dublin. It hosts academic programs and summer internships for both undergraduate and graduate students in addition to seminars, and is home to the Keough Naughton Center. [131] Since 2015, the university has partnered with Kylemore Abbey, which is renovating the abbey spaces so that it can host academic programs. [132]

. The university owns O’Connell House, a building in Merrion Square in the heart of Georgian Dublin. It hosts academic programs and summer internships for both undergraduate and graduate students in addition to seminars, and is home to the Keough Naughton Center. Since 2015, the university has partnered with Kylemore Abbey, which is renovating spaces at the abbey so it can host academic programs. Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Global Gateway shares space at the university’s Tantur Ecumenical Institute, in a 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m 2) facility at the seam between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It hosts religious and ecumenical programs. [133]

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. The Jerusalem Global Gateway shares space at the university’s Tantur Ecumenical Institute, in a 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m) facility at the seam between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It hosts religious and ecumenical programs. Rome. Rome Global Getaway is on Via Ostilia, very close to the Colosseum. It was recently acquired and renovated and now has 32,000 square feet (3,000 m2) of space to host a variety of academic activities. The university bought a second Roman villa on the Caelian hill. [134]

In addition to the five Global Gateways, the university also owns the Santa Fe Building in Chicago, where it offers its executive Master of Business Administration program. [135] The university also hosts Global Centers located in Santiago, São Paulo, Mexico City, Hong Kong, Mumbai.

Community development [edit]

The first phase of Eddy Street Commons, a $ 215 million development adjacent to the university -funded campus, began in June 2008. [136] [137] The project reaped union protests when workers hired by the City of South Bend to build a public parking garage picketed the private workplace after a contractor hired non-union workers. [138] The $ 90 million second phase began in 2017. [139]

Campus of the University of Notre Dame The central area of ​​the Kresge Law Library

The replica of the University of Notre Dame Grotto in Lourdes

Basilica and DomeUniversity of Notre Dame: Main and South Quadrangles

The Golden Dome in Winter

Notre Dame Golden Dome from the West Entrance of Cavanaugh Hall

Organization and administration [edit]

Theodore Hesburgh, photographed in 2012, is the 15th and longest-serving president of Notre Dame.

The president of the university has always been a priest of the Congregation of the Holy Cross. The first president was Edward Sorin; and the current president is John I. Jenkins. Beginning July 2020, Marie Lynn Miranda will be the provost overseeing academic affairs. [140] Until 1967, Notre Dame was directly managed by the Congregation. Under the leadership of Theodore Hesburgh, two groups, the Board of Fellows, and the Board of Trustees, were established to manage the university. [141] The 12 fellows were equally divided between members of the Holy Cross order and lay people; they have the final say in running the university. They vote on potential trustees and sign all major decisions of that board. [142] Administrators select the president and provide general guidance and management to the university. [141]

Endowment [edit]

The Notre Dame endowment was started in the early 1920s by university president James Burns; it was $ 7 million in 1952 when Hesburgh became president. In the fiscal year ending 2021, the market value of the university’s endowment was $ 18.07 billion, [19] although it recently reported its value at approximately $ 13.3 billion. [143]

Academics [edit]

Colleges and schools [edit]

The College of Arts and Letters was established as the first university college in 1842. The first degrees were awarded seven years later. [144] The university’s first academic curriculum was modeled after the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum from Saint Louis University. [145] Today, the college, located in O’Shaughnessy Hall, [146] includes 20 departments in the fields of arts, humanities, and social sciences, and offers Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degrees in nearly 70 majors and minors, making it the largest of the university colleges. There are more than 3,000 undergraduates and 1,100 graduates enrolled in the college, taught by 500 faculty members. [147]

Jordan Hall of Science

Bond Hall, home of the School of Architecture from 1964 to 2019

Special programs [edit]

Each Notre Dame undergraduate is part of one of the school’s five undergraduate colleges or in the First Year of Studies program. [174]

The First Year of School program was established in 1962 to guide freshmen through their first year of school before they declared a major. Each student will be assigned an academic advisor who will help them select classes that will give them exposure to any major in which they are interested. [175] The program includes the Learning Resource Center, which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring. [176] It was recognized as unique by the U.S. News & World Report [update required]. [177] The First Year of Study is designed to encourage intellectual and academic achievement and innovation in first year students. These include programs such as FY advising, the Dean’s A-list, the Renaissance circle, NDignite, the First Year Urban challenge, and more. [178]

Each admissions cycle, the Office of Undergraduate Admissions selects a small number of students for the Glynn Family Honors Program, giving top students within the College of Arts and Letters and College of Science access to more small class sizes taught by well -known teachers, endowed with funding. for independent research, and dedicated counseling to faculty and staff. [179]

Graduate education [edit]

Each college offers graduate education in the form of master’s and doctoral programs. Most departments in the College of Arts and Letters offer PhDs, while there is also a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) Program. All departments in the College of Science offer PhDs, except the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offers a PhD. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs, including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs.It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program. [154] The Alliance for Catholic Education program [180] offers a Master of Education program, in which students attend university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary, middle schools, and high schools. schools throughout the South for two years of schooling. [181] The university first offered a graduate degree, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program was expanded to include the Master of Laws (LLM) and Master of Civil Engineering in the early stages of its growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive degrees. This changed in 1924, with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including the offering of doctorates. [182]

Although Notre Dame does not have its own medical school, it offers a combined MD – PhD across the Indiana University School of Medicine regional campus, where Indiana medical students can spend the first two years of their medical education before moving on to basic medical. campus of Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis. [183] ​​[184]

Centers and institutes [edit]

The university hosts several centers and institutions. These include the Center for Social Concerns, the Eck Institute for Global Health, the Institute for Educational Initiatives, the Keough-Naughton Institute for Irish Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, the McGrath Institute for Church Life, the Medieval Institute, the Nanovic Institute for European Studies, and the Tantur Ecumenical Institute. There are also several college -based institutions such as the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center (UNDERC), the Harper Cancer Research Institute, the Initiative for Global Development, the Institute for Flow Physics and Control, the Institute for Latino Studies, the Liu Institute for Asia and Asian Studies, and the Wireless Institute.

In 2019, Notre Dame announced plans to rename the Center for Ethics and Culture, an organization dedicated to promoting Catholic moral and intellectual traditions. The new de Nicola A $ 10 million gift from Anthony and Christie de Nicola funded the Center for Ethics and Culture. [185] The university is also home to the McGrath Institute for Church Life, which “partners with Catholic dioceses, parishes and schools to address pastoral challenges with depth and rigorous theology”. [186] The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, established in 1986 through donations. violent conflict and the conditions for lasting peace. It offers Ph.D., master’s, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It has contributed to international policy discussions about peace-building practices. [187]

Libraries [edit]

The university library system is divided between the main library, the 14 -story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, and each of the colleges and schools. The Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, is the third building to house the main collection. [188] Millard Sheets’ Word of Life mural, known as “Touchdown Jesus” because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and the arms of Jesus appear to signal for the touchdown the front of the library. [189] [190]

The library system also includes branch libraries for Architecture, Chemistry and Physics, Engineering, Law, and Mathematics and information centers at Mendoza College of Business, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace. Studies, and a slide library in O’Shaughnessy Hall. [192] A theology library, which opened in the fall of 2015 on the first floor of Stanford Hall, is the first branch of the library system to be housed in a dorm room. With over three million volumes, the library system was the single largest university library in the world at the time of completion. [193] It remains one of the hundred largest libraries in the country. [194]

Entering [edit]

Admission statistics

class [195]

2017 [196] Change vs.2017 2022 enteringclass Admit rate 12.9% (−6.2) Yield rate 61.2% (+3.4) Test scores middle 50% SAT Total 1430-1550 (same median) ACT Composite 33–35 (+1 median)Admission to Notre Dame is highly competitive; the incoming class in fall 2022 admitted 3,412 from a pool of 26,506 applicants for a 12.9 percent acceptance rate. [197] The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate in the top 10 to 15 in the country for national research universities. In the most recent class, the 2020 class, 48 ​​percent were in the top one percent of their high school, and 94 percent were in the top 10 percent. The median SAT score is 1520 and the median ACT score is 35. The university operates a non-strict early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame and any other more colleges to accept them. [198] This process admitted 1,675 out of 9,683 (17 percent) who requested it. [199] The students accepted came from 1,311 high schools; the average student travels more than 750 miles (1,210 km) to Notre Dame. While all incoming students begin College in the First Year of Study, 25 percent indicated that they plan to study liberal arts or social sciences, 24 percent in engineering, 24 percent in business, 24 percent in science, and three percent in architecture. [200]

Tuition [edit]

Tuition for full-time students at the University of Notre Dame in 2021 will be $ 57,192 a year — a 3.9 percent increase in 2020. This is slightly higher than the national average for tuition increases, which have historically been three percent per year. [201]

Room and board is estimated to be an additional $ 15,984 per year for students living in campus housing. Notre Dame is a private university, so it offers the same tuition for in-state and out-of-state students. [201] Rankings [edit]

USNWR graduate rankings [211] Business 30 Engineering 50 Law 22

USNWR graduate departmental rankings [211] Biological Sciences 73 Analytical Chemistry 13 Chemistry 59 Clinical Psychology 37 Computer Science 58 Earth Sciences 68 Economics 47 English 33 Fine Arts 99 History 27 Mathematics 39 Non-profit Business 5 Logic 3 Political Physics 57 Political Science 57 Psychology 60 Sociology 32

Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States. [8] [9] [10] [212] In 2020, Notre Dame ranked 11th for “best undergraduate teaching”, 24th for “best value” school and equaled 15th overall among “national universities” in the United States in the U.S. report. U.S. News & World Report’s Best Colleges. [213] The school is ranked 19th in the U.S. News & World Report 2022 Best University Rankings report. [214] The U.S. News ranked Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as tied for 12th best in the U.S. in 2020. [215] The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranked Notre Dame’s graduate philosophy program 17th nationwide. [216]

The University is a member of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities Consortium. [217]

Research [edit]

Science [edit]

Joseph Carrier, director of the Science Museum and library, was a professor of chemistry and physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its commitment to development were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture. sponsored by the Catholic Church. One of Carrier’s students, John Augustine Zahm, was made professor and co-director of the science department at 23; in 1900, he was a well -known scientist and naturalist throughout the country. He was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic lay people to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of the theory of evolution as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great teachers of the church, Thomas Aquinas and Augustine, taught something similar. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm’s lie of the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon. [218]

In 1882, Albert Zahm, John’s brother, built an early wind tunnel to compare lift to drag aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message.[219] In 1931, Julius Nieuwland undertook early work on the basic reactions used to create neoprene. [220] The study of nuclear physics at the university began with the construction of a nuclear accelerator in 1936, [221] and continues today in part through a partnership with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics. [222]

Humanities [edit]

Hallway inside Hurley Hall

Richard T. Sullivan taught English from 1936 to 1974 and published six novels, dozens of short stories, and other works. He is known as a regional writer and a Catholic speaker. [223]

Frank O’Malley was an English professor in the 1930s – 1960s. Influenced by the philosophers Jacques Maritain, John U. Nef, and others, O’Malley developed a concept of Christian philosophy that was a key element in his thought. Through his “Modern Catholic Writers” course, O’Malley introduced generations of undergraduates to Gabriel Marcel, Graham Greene, Evelyn Waugh, Sigrid Undset, Paul Claudel, and Gerard Manley Hopkins. [224]

In 1939, Waldemar Gurian founded The Review of Politics, which was compared to German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative perspective on positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review has been edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders include Gurian, Maritain, O’Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It has become a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from the Catholic and scholastic traditions. [225]

Kenneth Sayre researched the history of the Philosophy department. He emphasizes the abandonment of official Thomism to philosophical pluralism in the 1970s, with a focus on the issue of Catholicism. He notes the charismatic personalities of Ernan McMullin and Ralph McInerny, key department heads in the 1960s and 1970s. [226]

The College of Arts and Letters is known for its contributions to the field of theology and religious studies, [227] while its affiliated Medieval Institute is the largest center for medieval studies in North America. [228 ]

Current research [edit]

In 2019, research continued in many fields. President Jenkins described his hope that Notre Dame would become “one of the world’s leading research institutions” in his inaugural speech. [229] The university has many multi-disciplinary research institutes, including the Medieval Institute, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, and Center for Social Concerns. [230] Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development, [231] [232] genome mapping, [233] the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China, [234] fluid mechanics studies , [235] computational science and engineering, [236] supramolecular chemistry, [237] and Internet marketing trends. [238] In 2013, the university was home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index, which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt. [239] In fiscal 2019, the university received all-time high research funding of $ 180.6 million, an increase of $ 100 million from 2009 and a 27 percent increase from the previous year, with top-funded and cutting-edge projects including vector -borne disease, urbanism, environmental design, cancer, psychology, economics, religious philosophy, particle physics, nanotechnology, and hypersonics. [240] Notre Dame has a strong background in the humanities, with 65 National Endowment for the Humanities fellowships, more than any other university. Focuses include the economic strategy against poverty, the main Medieval Institute, Latin studies, sacred music, Italian studies, Catholic studies, psychology, aging and stress, social welfare, and theology.[241] In the sciences, research focus and specialized centers include the Harper Cancer Research Institute, the Boler-Parseghian Center for Rare and Neglected Diseases, the Center for Nano Science and Technology, the Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, the Eck Institute for Global Health, the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, the University of Notre Dame Environmental Research Center, Topology and Quantum Field Theory, the Nuclear Physics Research Group, and the Environmental Change Initiative. [242]

European emigrants [edit]

The rise of Hitler and other dictators in the 1930s forced many Catholic intellectuals to flee Europe; President John O’Hara brought many of them to Notre Dame. Anton-Hermann Chroust, in classics and law, [243] and Waldemar Gurian, a German Catholic intellectual of Jewish descent, came from Germany. Positivism dominated the intellectual life of Americans in the 1920s, but on the contrary, Gurian received a German Catholic education, and wrote his doctoral dissertation under Max Scheler. [244] Ivan Meštrović, a well -known sculptor, brought Croatian culture to campus. [245] Yves Simon brought the insights of French studies into the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition of philosophy to the university in the 1940s; his teacher, Jacques Maritain, often visited campus. [246]

The exiles developed a distinct emphasis on the evils of totalitarianism. For example, Gerhart Niemeyer’s political science courses discussed communist ideology and were accessible to his students. He came to university in 1955 and frequently contributed to the National Review and other conservative magazines. [247] In 1960, Hesburgh invited Niemeyer and head of the political science department, Stanley Parry, C.S.C., Eric Voegelin (1901–1985), who had fled Nazi -occupied Austria, to the guest house at Notre Dame, which he made until on his retirement. in 1968. [248]

Student life [edit]

As of Fall 2020, the Notre Dame student body consists of 12,681 students, with 8,731 undergraduates and 3,950 graduate and professional (Law, M.Div., Business, MEd) students. [4] Approximately 21–24 percent of students are alumni children, [250] and the student body represents all 50 states and 88 countries. Thirty-seven percent of students are from the Midwestern United States, and 40 percent of students are U.S. students of color, eight percent are international citizens. [197]

Dwellings [edit]

Howard Hall, one of 15 women’s dormitories

Residence halls, or dorms, are the focus of the student’s social and intramural life. [251] [252] [253] Each hall is headed by a rector, a full-time, live-in professional who serves as leader, chief administrator, community builder and university resource to residents, and a priest, religious sister or brother, or a layman trained in ministry and/or education. [254] Rectors manage the hall community, foster bonding, and often interact with professors, academic advisors, and counselors to watch over students and assist them in their personal development. [255 ] Rectors select, recruit, train, and supervise hall staff: resident assistants (required to be seniors) and assistant rectors (graduate students). [256] Many residence halls also have priests or faculty members living as faculty fellows, providing additional academic and intellectual experience in the life of the residential hall. [257] Each hall has its own chapel, dedicated to the patron saint of the hall, and a liturgical schedule with masses celebrated several times a week during the academic year, in the tradition of individual chapels in university colleges. in English. [258]

Fraternities and sororities are not allowed on campus, as they are described as in opposition to the educational and residential mission of the university.[259] Residential halls provide the social and communal aspects of fraternities, but in accordance with the university’s policy on inclusion and zero tolerance of hazing, and according to former admissions director Dan Saracino, without “any of the disadvantages [of the Greek system]-hurry up, the groups, deciding whether you have enough to join them, monthly ‘fees’ and lower diversity of people living together ”. [260] [261]

More than four-fifths of students have lived in the same residence hall for three consecutive years and approximately one-third of students have lived in the same residence hall for all four years Since October 2017. [262] A new policy was implemented beginning in 2018, requiring undergraduates to reside on campus for three years. In the spring of 2019, the university also announced a policy prohibiting students living off -campus from participating in dorm activities, such as intramural sports and dorm dances. [263] Most intramural (interhall) sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football. [264] At the end of the interhall football season, the championship game was played at Notre Dame Stadium.

Student clubs [edit]

The hall of the Notre Dame Council of the Knights of Columbus

There are more than 400 active student clubs at the University of Notre Dame, with the financial oversight of each club designated by the student-managed Club Coordination Council. [266] The university subsidizes clubs, providing nearly 15 percent of the clubs’ collective expected spending of $ 2.2 million during the 2018–2019 academic year. [267] There are various student clubs on campus, including nine for students from different states, [268] about three dozen clubs representing different nationalities and backgrounds, [ 269] and clubs dedicated to Catholic theology, [270] diverse faith practices, social service, political advocacy and awareness, competitive athletes, professional development and networking, performing arts, academic debate, foreign affairs, fraternity, women’s empowerment, and many other interests. [271] The university hosts their annual Student Activities Fair in the early fall semester for all students interested in joining clubs or other student organizations. [272]

Student union [edit]

The Notre Dame Club Coordination Council (or simply Club Coordination Council (CCC)) is the branch of the university’s Student Union responsible for communicating issues facing undergraduate clubs, providing funding for undergraduate clubs. , which serves as the representative body of undergraduate student clubs, and works with student clubs to ensure that clubs can coordinate their programs of activities. [273] The CCC administers approximately 400 student clubs, [274] each with a unique purpose. [275] [276] Council approval, along with the Notre Dame Student Activities Office, is a requirement for official recognition of student clubs. [277] [278] [279]

Student events [edit]

The website BestColleges.com ranked the university’s intramural sports program as number one in the country in 2021. [280] More than 700 teams participate each year in the annual Bookstore Basketball tournament; [281] while the Notre Dame Men’s Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament to raise money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh. [282] In the fall, the Notre Dame Women’s Boxing Club hosts the annual Baraka Bouts tournament which raises money for the Congregation of the Holy Cross Missions in Uganda. [283]

Many of the most popular student events held on campus are organized by 30 residential halls. Among these, the best known are the Keenan Revue, the Fisher Hall Regatta, Keenan Hall Muddy Sunday, the Morrissey Hall Medallion Hunt, the Dillon Hall Pep Rally, the Keough Hall Chariot Race and many more. Each dorm also hosts several formal and informal balls and dances each year. [284]

Religious life [edit]

Basilica of the Sacred Heart at nightAlthough having a religion is not a criterion for admission, more than 93 percent of students are recognized as Christian, with more than 80 percent of them being Catholic. [285] There are 57 chapels on campus, including one in each residence hall. Altogether, Catholic Mass is celebrated more than 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program caters to the faith needs of the community. [264] [286] [287] There is also an active council of the Knights of Columbus on campus, which is the oldest and largest college council of the international Catholic men’s organization. [288] [289] Non-Catholic religious organizations on campus include Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club of Notre Dame, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, Chi Alpha Christian Fellowship, and more. [274]

The university is the main seat of the Congregation of the Holy Cross (though not its official headquarters, which is in Rome). [290] Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is on campus across from St. Joseph Lake from the Main Building. [291] The Old College, the oldest building on campus near the shores of St. Mary’s Lake, contains undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers live in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, and Columba Hall near the Grotto. [292]

Student-run media [edit]

Notre Dame students operate nine media outlets: three newspapers, a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Scholastic magazine, which began as a one-page journal in 1876, [293] is published twice monthly and is said to be the oldest continuous college publication in the United States. Another magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork. [294] The Dome yearbook is published annually. Newspapers have a variety of interest in publication, including The Observer which is published daily and primarily reports on university and other news, [295] staffed by students from Notre Dame at Saint Mary’s College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and has no faculty advisors or any editorial supervision from the university. [296] In 2003, when other students believed the paper had a liberal bias, they started The Irish Rover, a print and digital newspaper published twice per month featuring regular columns from alumni and faculty and coverage of campus matters. In 2005, The Observer and the Irish Rover were distributed to all students. [294] In Spring 2008, Beyond Politics, an undergraduate journal for political science research, made its debut. [297]

The television station NDtv grew from a show in 2002 to a full 24 -hour channel with original programming in 2006. [298] WSND-FM serves the student group and the larger South Bend community on 88.9 FM, offering students the opportunity to participate in bringing classical music, art and educational programming. , and alternative rock in the airwaves. Another radio station, WVFI, started as a partner of WSND-FM; it is now practiced independently and streamed over the Internet. [299]

Athletics [edit]

Notre Dame’s sports teams are known as the Fighting Irish. They compete as members of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, competing primarily in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) for all sports — except football — from the 2013–14 school year. Men’s ice hockey is played in the Big Ten conference [300] Notre Dame men compete in baseball, basketball, cross country, fencing, football, golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis and track and field; Women’s sports are basketball, cross country, fencing, golf, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. The football team has competed as a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) Independent [301] since its formation in 1887, except in 2020, when it competed as part of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Both fencing teams compete in the Midwest Fencing Conference. [302]Football stadium during a game

Notre Dame’s sports conference affiliations, other than football and fencing, changed in July 2013 due to major conference realignment, and its fencing affiliation changed in July 2014. The Irish left the Big East for the ACC in a long periods of instability in the Big East; [303] [304] While maintaining their freedom in football, they promised to play five games per season against ACC opponents. [305] After Notre Dame joined the ACC, the conference announced that it would add fencing as a sponsored sport beginning in the 2014–15 school year. [306]

There are many theories behind the adoption of the team name [307] but it is known that the name Fighting Irish was used in the early 1920s with reference to the football team, and alumnus Francis Wallace popularized it in his columns on New York Daily News. [308] The official colors of Notre Dame are navy blue and gold. [309] Green is sometimes worn because of the Fighting Irish nickname. [309]

The Notre Dame Leprechaun is the mascot of athletic teams. Created by Theodore W. Drake in 1964, the leprechaun was first used in the pocket football schedule and later covered the football program. It was featured by time on a cover in November 1964. [310]

Since its inception in 2011, Fighting Irish Media (FIM), made up of part-time student workers and full-time producers, has been filming almost all Fighting Irish sporting events for live digital and linear broadcasts. [311] With the installation of the videoboard at Notre Dame Stadium in Fall 2017, FIM took over the production of the video board for all Fighting Irish teams. [312]

In 2014, the University of Notre Dame and Under Armor reached an agreement under which the company would provide uniforms, clothing, equipment, and monetary compensation to Notre Dame for 10 years. This contract, valued at nearly $ 100 million, was the most lucrative in NCAA history at the time. [313]

According to some analysts, without a direct connection to the university or its athletic department, Notre Dame promotes Muscular Christianity through its athletic programs. [314]

Notre Dame is playing against the Navy

The history of the Notre Dame football team began when the Michigan team brought the game to Notre Dame in 1887 and played against a group of students. [316] Since then, 13 Fighting Irish teams have won consensus national championships (although the university claims only 11), [300] along with another nine teams named national champion by at least one source. [317] The program has the most members on the College Football Hall of Fame, [318] is tied with Ohio State for the most Heisman Trophies won by players, [319] and has the 3rd highest winning percentage in NCAA history, behind Ohio State and Alabama. [320] Notre Dame has amassed many rivals; the annual game against USC for Jeweled Shillelagh has been described as one of the best in college football. [321]

George Gipp, the legendary school football player of the late 1910s, played semi-professional baseball and smoked, drank, and gambled when not playing sports. He has been described as humble, generous to the needy, and a man of integrity. [322] In 1928, coach Knute Rockne used his last conversation with the dying Gipp to inspire the Notre Dame team to defeat the Army and “win one for Gipper”; that scene became the culmination of the 1940s film, Knute Rockne, All American, starring Pat O’Brien as Rockne and Ronald Reagan as Gipp. [323]

The team competes at the 80,795-seat Notre Dame Stadium. [324] The current head coach is Marcus Freeman, who was promoted as head coach after Brian Kelly left Notre Dame to coach LSU at the end of the 2021 regular season.

Forbes ranked the college football program the eighth most important for average annual revenue of $ 120 million. It has a TV contract with NBC worth approximately $ 15 million per year and is one of the largest fan bases in the country. [325]

In home games, activities take place throughout campus and dorms decorate their halls with traditional items (e.g., Zahm Hall’s two -story banner).Traditional activities begin at midnight with the Drummer ’Circle, which involves the Band of the Fighting Irish drumline starting with other festivities that will continue the rest of the game day on Saturday. Later that day, the trumpet section will play the Notre Dame Victory March and the Notre Dame Alma Mater under the dome. The entire band will play a concert on the stairs of Bond Hall, then march to the stadium, leading fans and students across campus to the game. [326]

Men’s basketball [edit]

The Joyce Center, home stadium for Notre Dame basketball teams

During 2020–2021, the men’s basketball team had more than 1,910 wins and appeared in 36 NCAA tournaments [327] [328] Former player Austin Carr holds the record for most points recorded in a single tournament game with 61. [329] Although the team never won the NCAA Tournament, they were named by the Helms Athletic Foundation as national champions twice. [328] The team orchestrated several upsets of top-ranked teams, the most notable of which ended UCLA’s record 88-game winning streak in 1974. [330] Notre Dame beat an additional eight number-one teams, and those nine wins were UCLA’s second, out of 10, all-time wins against the top team. [328]

The team plays in the newly renovated Purcell Pavilion (inside the Edmund P. Joyce Center), which reopened for the 2009–2010 season. [331] The team is coached by Mike Brey, who, in the 2020–21 season, his 22nd at Notre Dame, achieved a 449–248 record. [332] In 2009, Notre Dame was invited to NIT, where they reached the semi-finals. The 2010–11 team finished its regular season ranked number seven in the country, with a record of 25–5, the fifth Brey’s next 20-win season, and a second-place finish in the Big East. During the 2014–15 season, the team went 32–6 and won the ACC tournament, eventually advancing to Elite 8, where they lost in a missed final shot against then undefeated Kentucky. Led by NBA draft picks Jerian Grant and Pat Connaughton, the Fighting Irish defeated national champion Duke Blue Devils twice this season. The 32 wins were the Fighting Irish team’s most wins since 1908–09. [333]

Other sports [edit]

Notre Dame has won an additional 14 national championships in sports other than football. Three teams have won numerous national championships; the fencing team leads with 10, [334] followed by the men’s and women’s soccer teams with two. [335] [336] The men’s cross country, [336] and golf [336] teams won one and Notre Dame women’s basketball won two. [337]

In the first 10 years that Notre Dame competed in the Big East Conference, its teams won a total of 64 championships. [338] In 2010, the women’s swimming and diving team held the Big East record for consecutive conference championships in any sport with 14 consecutive conference titles (1997–2010). [339]

Bands and “Victory March” [edit]

The Band of the Fighting Irish was formed in 1846 and is the oldest university band in continued existence. [340] The marching band plays home games for most sports. It regularly played the school’s fight song, Notre Dame’s “Victory March”, which was recognized as the most played and most popular fight song by Northern Illinois professor William Studwell. [341] According to College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology published in 1998, “Victory March” was the greatest fight song. [341] It was honored by the National Music Council as a “Landmark of American Music” during the United States Bicentennial. [342] The song has been featured in the films Knute Rockne, All American, Airplane !, and Rudy. [343]

Two brothers wrote “Victory March”. Michael J. Shea, a 1904 graduate, wrote the music, and his brother John F. Shea, who earned degrees in 1906 and 1908, wrote the original lyrics. The lyrics were changed in the 1920s; it first appeared under the copyright of the University of Notre Dame in 1928. The choir is:

Cheer, cheer for old Notre Dame,

Awaken the echoes that cheer his name,

Send volley cheer on high,

Shake the thunder from the sky.How even if the possibilities are big or small

Notre Dame will be remembered as the winner of all,

As his faithful children march

Towards success. [344]

Alumni [edit]

The school has more than 130,000 alumni and 275 alumni clubs worldwide. [345] [346] Many provide annual financial support to the university. Notre Dame is ranked among the schools with the highest level of alumni donations. [347] A school-record 53.2 percent of alumni donating was set in 2006. [348] Many buildings, including residence halls, on campus are named for major donors. [349] [350] The classroom buildings, [351] and the performing arts center were also named for donors. [103]

Alumni working in politics include state governors, [352] members of the United States Congress, [353] and former United States secretary of state Condoleezza Rice. [354] Notable alumni from the College of Science were Eric F. Wieschaus, winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize in medicine, [355] and Philip Majerus, who discovered the cardioprotective effects of aspirin. [356] Many university officials are alumni, including the current president, John Jenkins. [357] Media alumni include talk show hosts Regis Philbin [358] and Phil Donahue, [359] and television and radio personalities such as Mike Golic [360] and Hannah Storm. [361] Several sports alumni have continued their careers in professional sports, such as Joe Theismann, Joe Montana, [362] Tim Brown, Ross Browner, Rocket Ismail, Ruth Riley, Jeff Samardzija, [363] Jerome Bettis, Justin Tuck, Craig Counsell, Skylar Diggins-Smith, Brett Lebda, Olympic gold medalist Mariel Zagunis, professional boxer Mike Lee, former football coaches such as Charlie Weis, [364] Frank Leahy and Knute Rockne, [365] and Basketball Hall of Famers Austin Carr and Adrian Dantley. Other prominent alumni include prominent businessman Edward J. DeBartolo Jr. and astronaut Jim Wetherbee. [366] [367] Two alumni received the Presidential Medal of Freedom (Alan Page and Edward J. DeBartolo Jr.), and two the Congressional Gold Medal (Thomas Anthony Dooley III and Bill Hanzlik).

Popular culture [edit]

The University of Notre Dame is the setting of several works of fiction, as well as the alma mater of several fictional characters. [368] In mid-20th century America it became “perhaps the most famous symbol of Catholicism”, as The Routledge Companion to Religion and Popular Culture notes:

By combining religion, ethnicity, masculinity, and athletics in a powerful blend of an aggressive and unique Catholic gospel of athletics, Notre Dame football has become a symbolic program that represents the self-identity of the American Catholic. [369 ]

Movies [edit]

Knute Rockne, All American is a 1940 biographical film that tells the story of Knute Rockne, Notre Dame football coach. [370]

is a 1940 biographical film that tells the story of Knute Rockne, Notre Dame football coach. The speech “Win ​​one for the Gipper” was parodied in the 1980 film Airplane! when, as the Victory March rises to a crescendo in the background, Dr. Rumak, played by Leslie Nielsen, urged reluctant pilot Ted Striker, played by Robert Hays, to “win just one for Zipper”, Striker’s friend George Zipp. Victory March also plays during the film credits. [371] [372]

when, as the Victory March rises to a crescendo in the background, Dr. Rumak, played by Leslie Nielsen, urged reluctant pilot Ted Striker, played by Robert Hays, to “win just one for Zipper”, Striker’s friend George Zipp. Victory March also plays during the film credits. Rudy is a 1993 biography of Daniel “Rudy” Ruettiger, who hid dreams of playing football at Notre Dame despite major obstacles. [373]

Television [edit]

Other media [edit]

See also [edit]

Notre Dame Shakespeare Festival, held on campus every summer

Notes [edit]

^ [23] The university campus actually contained two lakes, but according to legend, when Sorin arrived in the area everything was frozen, so he thought there was only one lake and named the university accordingly. ^ Others are made up of Multiracial Americans and those who prefer not to say.^ The percentage of students who received an income-based federal Pell grant for low-income students. ^ The percentage of students who are part of the American middle class at the lowest.

References [edit]

Further reading [edit]

Burns, Robert E. Being Catholic, Being American: The Notre Dame Story, 1934–1952, Vol. 2. (2000). 632pp. excerpt and text search

(2000). 632pp. excerpt and text search Corson, Dorothy V. A Cave of Candles: The Spirit, History, Legends and Lore of Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s (2006), 222pp.

(2006), 222pp. Hesburgh, Theodore M. God, Country, Notre Dame: The Autobiography of Theodore M. Hesburgh (2000)

(2000) Jones, E. Michael (2009). Is Notre Dame still Catholic? . South Bend, IN: Fidelity Press. ISBN 978-0-9298-91019.

McAvoy, Thomas T. “Notre Dame, 1919–1922: The Burns Revolution.” Review of Politics 1963 25 (4): 431–450. in JSTOR

1963 25 (4): 431–450. in JSTOR McAvoy, Thomas T. Father O’Hara of Notre Dame (1967)

(1967) Massa, Mark S. Catholics and American Culture: Fulton Sheen, Dorothy Day, and the Notre Dame Football Team. (1999). 278 pp.

(1999). 278 pp. Miscamble, Wilson D. American Priest: The Ambitious Life and Conflicted Legacy of Notre Dame’s Father Ted Hesburgh (2019) online

(2019) online O’Brien, Michael. Hesburgh: A Biography. (1998). 354 pp.

(1998). 354 pp. O’Connell, Marvin R. Edward Sorin. (2001). 792 pp.

(2001). 792 pp. Pilkinton, Mark C. Washington Hall in Notre Dame: Crossroads of the University, 1864–2004 (University of Notre Dame Press, 2011) 419 pp.

(University of Notre Dame Press, 2011) 419 pp. Rice, Charles E., Ralph McInerny, and Alfred J. Freddoso. What Happened to Notre Dame? (2009) lamented the decline of Catholicism in ND

See also  What Is The Name Of Jon Bernthal Sister Here Is What You Need To Know About We Own This City Cast? Top Answer Update

(2009) lamented the decline of Catholicism in ND Robinson, Ray. Rockne of Notre Dame: The Making of a Football Legend. (1999). 290 pp.

(1999). 290 pp. Sperber, Murray. Shake Down the Thunder: The Creation of Notre Dame Football. (1993) 634 pp.

(1993) 634 pp. Yaeger, Don and Looney, Douglas S. Under the Tarnished Dome: How Notre Dame Betrayed Its Ideals for Football Glory. (1993). 299 pp.

University of Notre Dame



Organization and management



Student life



Famous culture

See also

Notre Dame Shakespeare Festival, held on campus every summer


^ [23] The university campus actually contained two lakes, but according to legend, when Sorin arrived in the area everything was frozen, so he thought there was only one lake and named the university accordingly. ^ Others are made up of Multiracial Americans and those who prefer not to say. ^ The percentage of students who received an income-based federal Pell grant for low-income students. ^ The percentage of students who are part of the American middle class at the lowest.


Further reading

Full text of Sponsor (December 1962)

Full text of “Sponsor (December 1962)”

SPONSOR THE WEEKLY MAGAZINE RADIO/TV ADVERTISERS SPECIAL YEAR-END REPORT p. 21 Review of radio / tv advertising events in ’62 24 DECEMBER 19G2^-40c a copy / $ 8 a year t PEACE ON EARTH Business-labor reporter for WWJ News, Britton Temby keeps an experience finger on the pulse of union -management developments, informing its audience about industrial changes and counter-swings affecting their jobs and income. Temby also specializes in crisp and deceptive interviews with local and national leaders for the efficient operation of WWJ News — the only Detroit service enhanced by: • 13-Man Broadcast News Staff-The Detroit News’ Largest • Newsgathering Resources • NBC Correspondents in 75 Countries WWJ News WWJ-TV STATIONS Owned and Operated by The Detroit News National Representatives: Peters, Griffin, Woodward, Inc. WB EN-TV pioneered Buffalo television in 1948 and has since focused on high-quality programming and public service — through outstanding local and CBS programs. In the field of community service, WBEN-TV, the only Buffalo-area station with its own mobile unit always available, brings its viewers Sunday services live and from other churches weekly on for more than a decade. Live shows such as state political conventions, a dozen direct telecasts annually from the county fair, farm-service programs, live school performances, opera workshops, State University of Buffalo Round Tables — including regattas, Seaway specials, Niagara Falls Power inaugural, State Thruway dedication — these and many other direct telecasts attest to the spirit of the Ch community. 4 in Buffalo. In order to serve this great Western New York audience — which is expected to be the best in television from WBEN-TV — it is also necessary to choose the best film entertainment available. That’s why WB EN-TV bought “Films of the 50’s” by Seven Arts. WB EN-TV feels that these great films will continue to give viewers great entertainment. The loyalty of this audience is reflected in the client’s satisfaction, confident the belief of WBEN-TV. SEVEN ARTS ASSOCIATED CORP. A SUBSIDIARY OF SEVEN ARTS PRODUCTIONS. LTD. NEW YORK 270 Park Avenue YUkon 5-1717 CHICAGO 8922 D N La Crosse (PO Bo. 613). Skok.e. III. ORchard 4 5105 DALLAS 5541 Charleston Drive A0ams 9 2855 LOS ANGELES. 3562 Royal Woods Drive. Sherman Oaks. Calil STale 8-S276 TORONTO. ONTARIO 11 Adelaide Wesl EMpire 4 7193 For a list of TV stations that have programmed Seven Arts’ “50s Movies”, see Third Cover SRDS (Spot TV Rales and Data) Individual prices on request Why WBEN -TV Buffalo, purchased Volumes 1,3, 4 & 5 of Seven Arts’ “Films of the 50’s” AT BUFFALO WBEN-TV KEEP BELIEVING IN IT, CLEAR, INFORMED and ENTERTAINED The “general call” is the quick way to spread news throughout town that fresh goods from the factory are now. in stock. You still can’t beat. But in modern Sioux Falls and its satellite cities, “general call” coverage is achieved through jet-age methods. KELO-PLAN RADIO. This total audience plan, developed by KELO, is radio saturation with a startling difference. You get strategically map-out, confirmed times. You get the full battery of KELO-LAND personalities to back up your campaign. And you’ll buy that whole powerful campaign with the ease of buying somewhere. KELO SHOPPERS * * STATfQN 13,600 Watts Radiated Power Sioux Falls, S.D. and all Kelo lands JOE FLOYD. President Jim Molohon, Mgr .; Evans Nord, Gen. Mgr. Represented by H-R s “^\» In Minneapolis by “^r^Wayne Evans & Associates’ SPONSOR 24 DECEMBER 1962 Vol. 16 No. 52 SPONSOR-WEEK / News Top News p. 8, 10 / Advertisers p. 60 / Agencies p. 56 / Radio Stations p. 61 / Representatives p. 62 / Film p. 62 / Public Service p. 62 SPONSOR-SCOPE / Behind the news P. 15 SPONSOR BACKSTAGE / First family P. 12 KEY S TORIE S 1962 Year-end report TV: IT WAS A ‘TELSTAR’ YEAR / Among the top stories of 1962: Treyz’s exit from ABC TV ; LeRoy Collins and his anti-cigarette speech; controversial Nixon-Hiss program.p_ 22 RADIO: YEAR OF THE BIG FREEZE / The most important radio story in 1962 was the FCC freeze on am licenses. Other: networks in black ink; Fm has made visible progress; station revenue decreased. p_ 26 AGENCY ACCOUNTS: BIG SWITCHES / Highlights at the end of the year include $ 13 million in revenue of Y&R and JWT; L&F lost two giant clients; F&S & R consumer accounts added. p. 28 WASHINGTON: SILENT, BUT NOT DULL / FCC threat to licenses; The commission changes favor the New Frontier; The FTC’s loss of “sandpaper ruling” – such events set the tone of the year. p_ 30 AGENCY BILLINGS: RADIO / TV UP / Survey of the top 50 agencies shows broadcast billings to rise 9% in 1962. A closer look reveals unexpected realities in agency growth.p_ 32 NON- MAN OF THE YEAR AWARD / A light look at a serious subject: the machines, methods and systems that helped ease the burden of the broadcasting world in 1962. p. 36 TIMEBUYERS: ACTIVITY WRAP-UP / Hectic year for timebuyij fraternity was marked by increasing broadcast buying. Adding purchasing activity: presentations, dinners, etc. p. 39 U.S. RADIO / TV OWNERSHIP ESTIMATES / Reprint of data compiled by A. C. Nielsen Co. in size, location of the U.S. radio/tv audience, county-by-county, for Montana to Wyoming. p, 42 TIMEBUYER’S CORNER / Within agencies P. 40 WASHINGTON WEEK / FCC, FTC and Congress P. 55 SPONSOR HEARS / Trade trends and talk P. 56 DEPARTMENTS 555 Fifth p. 5 /4-Week Calendar p. 5 SPONSOR ® Integrated with TV ®. U.S. Radio ®. U.S.FM ® Executive. Editorial. Circulation. ** ■ »Advertising offices: 555 Fifth Ave .. New York 17. 212 MUrray Hill 7-8080. Midwest Office: 612 M I ‘Michigan Ave., Chicago 11. 312-664 1166. Southern Office: 3617 Eighth Ate. So .. Birmingham 5. 205-322-6528 W «st*m Office: 601 California Ave .. San Francisco 8, 415 TU 1-8913. I/Oi Antelee ‘/phone 213-464-8089. Printing Office: 311 Elm Ave .. Baltimore 11. Md. Subscriptions: U S. tS per year Canada $ 9 per year. Other countries $ 11 a year. Single copies 40c. Printed U.S.A. Published weekly. The second class stamp was paid in Baltimore. Mil. © 1962 SPONSOR Publications Jnc. 4 SPONSOR/ 2 J DECEMBER 1962 ^555/ FIVE Letters to the Editor FREEDOMS OF AN ADVERTISER Your comments by Mr. McMillin [Commercial Comment, Dec. 3) is the Alger I Iiss-Snhth- Nixon broadcast on ABC; pitiful, in view of his “changing times” in principle, as the lie points out: “Kemper and Schick are both attempted to leave ABC contracts … because of d (pleasure in the Smith program. “Then Mr. Minow’s observation.” Which means freedom from Government censorship, as well as some fearful advertisers* who seeking through commercial retaliation… to influence broadcasts. “Both Mr. McMillin, Mr. Mi today and your magazine have forgotten one basic, principle: the right to disagree, and the right not to support those who disagree with what you think or who are directly or indirectly determined to destroy, by purpose or accident, the very principles you believe in. The old adage is “He who changes paid the piper has the courtesy of calling the melody. ”Or is this principle e out of date? Mr. added. McMillin (from the other side of his mouth) that “freedom from the doctrine of advertising pressure will be demanded by Washington eventually in matters involving non-news programs, commercials, and possibly advertising contracts.” Any advertiser who clings to this kind of dictatorship from the government, when his money is being spent, should be properly boycotted by all-minded Americans-and sooner rather than later. Mr. McMillin should keep the observations consistent, but I’m probably expecting too much from your good magazine-because I failed to see any defense of Kemper Insurance’s action or Schick’s or Pacific Hawaiian’s action, such as the right to “not buy of ABC or any other media that they feel does not serve the best interests of their company.“Imagine the courage of any of your staff with unmixed gall to criticize an advertiser’s judgment of what and where his money would make SPONSOR/2-1 df.oemrf.r 1962 best for him, his stockholders, and his employees. My, how the “fiee thinkers howl” when it affects t licit pcx kctbook. Von hears the screams from “land’s end 10 John () ‘Gioat.” Let the sonic advertiser to say that it is his right and heritage to criticize and back it up with action, then the right of free speech and freedom of choice is subject to all the frightening allegations that can be made in the mind.or the so-called “liberals, the mad left” and the vague thinkers who seem to dominate the news media and many of today’s trade publications.I searched your sponsor issue on December 3 and I found no opinion supporting views of ma this writer, and of the aforementioned companies. In fairness, an editorial that supports the other point of view cannot be considered “unbiased reporting?” HARLAN G. OAKES, Harlan Oakes & Associates, Hollywood, Cal. SESAC HINIKOT STUDY Von can do a great service to your readers by asking them to canvas their records and find out the situation in BMI, ASCAP, and SESAC. We no longer have to play a single SESAC and it will save us money and will definitely affect the public in a) way. We have BMI, ASCAP, and SESAC. Count the notes. Out of DECEMBER American Marketing Assn. annual win- j = icr conference: Hilton Iloiel, Pitts- burgh, 27-29.The theme of the ihc conference was “Marketing in Transilion.” Information and registration niaie- 3 riyal may be obiaincd from 3 American Marketing Assn., 27 F.asi 1 Monioe St., Chicago 3, III. JANUARY 1 NAB-FCC joint conference at am H giow-ih pioblcnis. 7-8. Ml the in- g leu-sied iviav attend. liiiniMiiiiiiiniiH i “‘from 1 a bundle Mm will find BMI and \ SCAP, but almost one in 100 a SESAC. And yet the stations eat payment from ilHO to S.Kll) per} car, what ? BMI is clearly nest and bloodless.We pay the nose to ASCAP.Now SESAC is a plague.SESAC has a sleeping contract: it is not* five years, and if the cancellation does not end, it will continue within a few years of Inc. The core was that the cvety broadcaster should immediately cam and then settle on a stud) ol SESAC.Who drives and initiates SESAC other than SESAC? flow the) gel of stranglehold? And why is XAB silent? If XAB should ol service, it should certainly commit lee the epiestion.IRVING WARD-STEINMAN, KDBS, Alexandria, La. FARM REPORT In “A Profile of Farm Radio-Tv in 10 ( 12 ”(26 November), you run a box showing national sales repres entative working at NATRFD stations. Von failed to show up to KFIIQ’s representative, The Boiling Company. KEEQ has enjoyed working with Boiling since the Ileatlley-Reed merger, and they have done a great job with the farm sponsors and their stations. I feel like it’s an oxer-sight on your part. H. J. “SMITTY” SCHMITZ, director of farm services. KFEQ, Saint Joseph, Mo. • SPONSOR regrets the omission and will be happy to correct it. The list is provided by NATRFD. Florida Assn. of Broadcasters board of directors mceiiug: Chcrry-Pla/a, Orlando, I- la., 12. Academy of Television Arts & Sciences film presentation of the BBC docti-menum “Television and the W’oild”: llolhuood. 1 1. South Carolina Broadcasters Assn. animal winter meeting: Hotel Wade Hampton, Columbia. S. C. 17-10. Advertising Assn. of the West mid-win Icr Cciufereiicv: Mapes ttoI «-I, Reno. Ne \ .. 18-20. 5 piiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiim 1 1 i mi i i iiiiiiiiiii i mum win i “4 -WEEK CALENDAR more COSMETIC SALES per dollar Wh; itt; vfi your product Channel H moves ^ oods Sa VVGAL TV yuui buK ^ iiioss; i |; i ‘i i -. ioho. more families m (In- prosperous Lancastor-Hai risburp- York- L 1 i i Favorite till now among viewers in many other places also.Your cost per In iis.uid viruTis l.rss than any combination of stations in the area.Channel Lancaster, P, NBC-CBS Cl> Programs STEINM AN STATION • Clair McCollough, Pres.] SPONSOR / 24 DECEMBER 1962^SP0N5^0R “\ A^F FKl m tv / radj ° Wi 24 December 1962 FCC PROBES ISSUE OF LOUD COMMERCIALS The FCC last week decided to launch a full-scale inquiry into whether ads are too strong or not.The move came with a surprise unanimous vote.A special problem of the inquiry is the question of how to measure its selling power, as many measures have not shown ements that are too noisy. advertisements.The FCC is trying to establish whether advertisements can be made loud without it being taken up by existing measurement instruments, and calls for the FCC industry’s joint effort to develop new measurement instruments.Invites public comment and trade before Jan. 28, and in the meantime, the FCC has asked broadcasters to reduce commercial loudness.The main issues on which the FCC is n seeking trade and public comment is whether the commercials are in fact too strong, whether industry regulation is required, and how the FCC can enter. Lawmakers like Sen. Clifford 1*. Case (R-N.J.) Supported Mi’s stand today* for an FCC rule on the strength of ads. (For detailed background on this controversial issue, see Dec. 10. sponsor. P. 29.) RKO GENERAL NAME TWO PRESIDENTS At a major corporate realignment announced last week by Thomas F. O’Neil. board chairman of General Tire and Rubber Co .. RKO General is divided into two special units. Hathaway Watson has been appointed president of RKO General Broadcasting, a newly created division. which manages five tv and seven radio oRro’s, National Sales Division, and Eastern Broadcasting. John B. Poor will be the president of RKO General. Inc., which controls theater and antenna systems, pay-tv, and other non-broadcast operations. O’Neil said: “We feel that the realignment of responsibilities will facilitate further planned growth of the company.” FTC Charges GERITOL WITH FALSE CLAIMS Last week, the FTC charged J. B. Williams and its agency, 1’arkson, of making false therapeutic claims for Geritol in television commercials and newspaper ads .Apart from the alleged health benefits, the FTC also charges that Geritol claims an unconditional money-back guarantee that this is not the case. ABC RISES ON P&G BUFFALO PULL-OUT The Buffalo outlet of ABC TV appears to have agreed to P&G cancellation of programs and participations at the end of this month. Rifleman, controlled by P&G. will disappear into the air in Buffalo. Other shows will continue without P&G participations: I’m Dickens, He’s Fenster, Wagon Train, The Dahotas. and Ben Casey. No day affected. NAB ASKS FCC FOR EXTENSION OF INSPECTION DEADLINE NAB last week asked the FCC to postpone from Dec. 28 to Jan. 18, 1963 its deadline for comments on the FCC’s proposal to provide for local public inspection of certain specific broadcast record. The proposal was made at the end of November and stations are complaining that they need more time. SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 SPONSOR-WEEK Leading news in tv/radio advertising (continued) FOG ARTY ATTACKS GOVERNMENT TV PROGRAMING IMPLUENCE Frank Fogarty, executive v.p. of Meredith Broadcasting and v. p. and general manager of AVOW, Inc., Omaha, last week attacked the federal government for alleged attempts to influence tv programing. The statements were made in Hollywood in front of a panel of the Academy of Tv Arts and Sciences. The FCC’s inquiry into local tv in Omaha will begin Jan. 28. NETWORK TV BILLINGS UP 12% IN OCTOBER TvB last week released LNA-BAR reports that total network tv time charges were increased 12.7% to $ 654.1 million in the first ten months of 1962. October charges increased 10.6% to $ 66. 8 million. For the first ten months, day rose 19.7% to $ 206.2 million and night rose 9.7% to $ 447.9 million. ABC TV was up 7.7% to $ 168.3 million, CBS TV was up 17.1% to $ 254.8 million, and NBC TV was up 1 1.9% to $ 230.0 million.27 SIGN FOR $ 4 MILLION ON CBS RADIO IN QUARTER Last quarter participation sales to 27 advertisers on CBS Radio for 1962 and 1963 totaled $ 4 million, the network reported last week. Buyers include Buick, Campbell, Canada Dry, Chemical Compounds, Chemway, DuPont, Florist Telegraph Delivery, Grove, Hires, Insurance Co. of North America. Kerr Glass, Kraft, Mattel, Mennen, Meredith Publishing, Metropolitan Life, Miller Brewing, 3M, Morton House Kitchens, Rexall, Salad, Standard Kni-ting Mills, Standard Packaging, Sylvania, Warner-Lambert, and Wrigley. ABC RADIO REPORTS A 2-WEEK $ 4 MILLION RECORD A total of $ 4.1 million of new and renewed business for 1963 was written by ABC Radio in the first two weeks of December, a new high for such a time period, reported by the network last week. New businesses, with a total of $ 1.3 million, include Lorillard, Sylvania, Kraft, American Dairy, Pepsi-Cola, 3M, Bristol- Myers, Buick, Florist’s Telegraph Delivery, Rexall, and Nichols Wire. Re-newals include R. J. Reynolds, Mennen, Wrigley, Hasting Manufacturing, Mum, Miller Brewing, L&M, Foster-Milburn, Highland Church of Christ, American Motors, and World Vision. MYRON KIRK, PIONEER AGENCY TV SHOWMAN, DIED AT 62 Myron (Mike) Kirk, one of the most colorful personalities in the agency’s showmanship field in the 30’s, 40’s, and early 50’s, died last week of a heart attack in his Southampton, L. I., house. He is 62 years old. Kirk has a record of radio program successes but his talents as a showman are really blossoming with the introduction of the tv commercial. His introduction of Milton Berle for Texaco gave the medium its early strength and in the area of ​​the spectacular his Mary Martin-Ethel Merman show became a classic. Kirk’s agency associations are, in that order, Ruthrauff k Ryan, Buchanan, Kudner, and Lennen & Newell. SPONSOR-WEEK continues on page 60 8 SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 “The film does the extraordinary” “BECAUSE IT’S MOISTURIZING!” That’s the sale proposal in an unusual 60-second Lux ​​Soap television commercial. For customers to feel the moisturizing difference, high-speed photography stops moving, capturing the sparkle and glitter of creomy, moisture-loden lather. The shooting was on Eastmon film with prints in Eostmon print-stock. Two steps – negotive or positive. Same Eastmon! Both are important to the sponsor, network, ocal station or viewer! Moral: Plon corefully … go Eostman— oil the woy! ^Give Iways the producer time to give you high quality prints! For more information, please contact Motion Picture Film Deportment EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY, Rochester 4, N.Y. East Caasf Division, 342 Madison Avenue, New York 17, N.Y. Midwest Division, 130 Eosl Randolph Dr., Chicago 14, III. West Coast Division, 6706 Santa Monica Blvd., Hollywood, Calif. For the purchase of the film, W. J. German, Inc.Actors far away in the sale and distribution of Eastman Professional Films far away motion pictures and televisions, Fart Lee, N.J., Chicago, III., Hollywood, Calif. ADVERTISER: lux Toilet Soap (lever Brothers Company) AGENCY: J. W. Thompson Co. PRODUCER: MPO Videotronics E2EZ2ES1 SI ,. ; \ V* fork Sim*. If “«. „~» ^NewYorkWorld-Telegram gag UAUXBN EyS_ [gj LATEST iencan NE ws New York Mirror KB ff New Y () fK POSl iV.V. ‘ When they close …1 7:00 WABC FM News 4:15 WABC- FM News 8:15 WABC- FM News 5:30 WABC- FM News 7:15 WABC FM News 4:30 WABC- FM News 8:30 WABC- FM News 5: 45 WABC- FM News 7:30 WABC FM News 4:45 WABC- FM News 8:45 WABC- FM News 6:00 WABC- FM News 7:45 WABC FM News 5:00 WABC FM News 9:00 WABC FM News 6:15 WABC- FM News 8:00 WABC FM News 5:15 WABC- FM News 9:15 WABC- FM News 6:30 WABC- FM News 8:15 WABC FM News 5:30 WABC FM News 9:30 WABC – FM News 6:45 WABC- FM News 8:30 WABC FM News 5:45 WABC- FM News 9:45 WABC FM News 7:00 WABC FM News 8:45 WABC FM News 6:00 WABC FM News 10:00 WABC FM News 7:15 WABC FM News 9:00 WABC FM News 6:15 WABC FM News 10:15 WABC FM News 7:30 WABC FM News 9:15 WABC FM News 6:30 WABC FM News 10:30 WABC FM News 7:45 WABC FM News 9:30 WABC FM News 6:45 WABC FM News 10:45 WABC FM News 8:00 WABC FM News 9:45 WABC FM News 7:00 WABC FM News 11:00 WABC FM News 8:15 WABC FM News 10:00 WABC FM News 7:15 WABC FM News 11:15 WABC FM News 8:30 WABC FM News 10:15 WABC FM Ne ws 7:30 WABC FM News 11:30 WABC FM News 8:45 WABC FM News 10:30 WABC FM News 7:45 WABC FM News 11:45 WABC FM News 9:00 WABC FM News 10:45 WABC FM News 8:00 WABC FM News 12:00 WABC FM News 9:15 WABC FM News 11:00 WABC FM News 8:15 WABC FM News 12:15 WABC FM News 9:30 WABC FM News 11:15 WABC FM News 8:30 WABC FM News 12: 30 WABC FM News 9:45 WABC FM News 11:30 WABC FM News 8:45 WABC FM News 12:45 WABC FM News 10:00 WABC FM News 11:45 WABC FM News 9:00 WABC FM Balita 1:00 WABC FM News 10:15 WABC FM News 12:00 WABC FM News 9:15 WABC FM News 1:15 WABC FM News 10:30 WABC FM News 12:15 WABC- FM News 9:30 WABC FM News 1:30 WABC FM News 10:45 WABC FM News 12:30 WABC- FM News 9:45 WABC FM News 1:45 WABC FM News 11:00 WABC FM News 12:45 WABC FM News 10:00 WABC FM News 2:00 WABC FM News 11:15 WABC FM News 1:00 WABC- FM News 10:15 WABC FM News 2:15 WABC FM News 11:30 WABC FM News 1:15 WABC FM News 10:30 WABC FM News 2:30 WABC FM News 11 : 45 WABC FM News 1:30 WABC FM News 10:45 WABC FM News 2:45 WABC FM News 1:45 WABC FM News 11:00 WABC FM News 3:00 WABC FM News 7:00 WABC FM News 2:00 WABC FM News 11:15 WABC FM News 3:15 WABC FM News 7:15 WABC FM News 2: 15 WABC FM News 11:30 WABC FM News 3:30 WABC FM News 7:30 WABC FM News 2:30 WABC FM News 11:45 WABC FM News 3:45 WABC FM News 7:45 WABC FM News 2:45 WABC FM News 4:00 WABC FM News 8:00 WABC FM News 3:00 WABC FM News 7:00 WABC- FM News 4:15 WABC FM News 8:15 WABC FM News 3:15 WABC FM News 7:15 WABC – FM News 4:30 WABC FM News 8:30 WABC FM News 3:30 WABC FM News 7:30 WABC- FM News 4:45 WABC FM News 8:45 WABC FM News 3:45 WABC FM News 7:45 WABC – FM News 5:00 WABC FM News 9:00 WABC FM News 4:00 WABC FM News 8:00 WABC- FM News 5:15 WABC FM News 9:15 WABC FM News that we talked about. WABC-FM broadcasts 17 hours of uninterrupted news, using the American Broadcasting Company’s worldwide news facilities. Supplementing wabc radio expanded news … wabc-tv expanded news … abc is presenting wabc-fm continuous news, 17 hours of news daily. This is abc’s dramatic and unprecedented response to the public interest, convenience and need. WABC-FM/NEW YORK AN ABC OWNED RADIO STATION ^SPONSOR BACKSTAGE by Joe Csida We’ve talked a lot recently about the helpful service newsletters we broadcast on VYEZE every morning, so here- in bulletin form – what we wish for you in 1963: WEATHER: Sunny disposition to everyone you meet, followed by warm friendship and no rain other than the kind of gift giving. TRAFFIC: Rapid progress on the road to success, with clover leaves occasionally to make the ride easier. NEWS: Peace and brotherhood everywhere – across the country, across the country, and especially where peace begins. . . within ourselves. Sincerely, Arthur E. Haley General Manager Other Air Trails stations are: VVIZE WKLO Springfield Louisville WCOL WING Columbus Dayton WRITE Milwaukee Footlights to First Family For me the White House needs to set up a special department (if, in fact, they have not already done so) to determine the question of ownership of shows that feature or treat the President and his family in any way, and to further determine at what point the identity of the sponsor in such shows are right and wrong. I remember The World of Jacqueline Kennedy, a one -hour program that aired on NBC TV, Nov. 30. There were commercials I remember for Purex, Trend, and Dutch Cleanser. As a matter of fact, the dancing girl used in the last commercial, in the long shots almost looks like Jackie.This show, incidentally, is superb, especially in its great use of the many still shots that are all available to depict the childhood and youthful days of the Plrst Lady. The sequence of these still photographs is so neat, the script that covers them and the voice over narration is so well done that it’s hard to imagine how that part of the show could have been more effective even with motion pictures back then. weather. The still-shot technique was most effectively used again at the end of the show when photos of celebrities flashed on the screen as the narrator read their opinions about Mrs. Kennedy. Kennedy was liberal in family publicity But the Kennedys, from the President to every member of the family, had a completely liberal attitude to the use of the family in shows, in records, in magazines, and in almost everything. of other forms of entertainment and/ or communications. For example, the most so-called movie fan magazines, had the ball at Jackie’s expense. The same dilemma holds to a level for radio and television uses. The album “The First Family” has been played on air more often lately than any album on the market, and certainly more widely than any comedy album in our time. It shows the voice- (that of Vaughn Meader) that you swear belongs to the President of the United States, another testimony you have is about his charming wife, and other prominent family members in a no meaningful, funny situation then. one more. II an imitation of the President’s voice used on the air in this way is okay, why not a radio station area? In the same way, if Purex, Trend, and others can sponsor a show built around Jac-queline Kennedy, where does the sponsor’s identity begin and end? I wouldn’t say that this problem is on Kennedy’s list along with Red China, India, Berlin, Space Probes, Disarmament, Cuba or even domestic issues like Medical Aid for the Aged. But this is a problem. In fact, two new comedy albums discussing “another first family,” the Khrushchevs in the Kremlin, have just been released. The Red head and his household are both children in the same way that “The First Family” children are to our President and his relatives. But suppose Russian K doesn’t like it? It could be the beginning of another international crisis. ^ 12 SPONSOR/ 2-1 DECEMBER 1962 Jim Ameche is a radio salesman No, Jim Ameche does not sell radios (unless one of your clients wants to advertise them on KGBS, Los Angeles ). He was one of the best radio salesmen. Sells anything – painlessly and effectively – using Ameche’s versatile, unique voice. The sales record is also great, from the “golden age” of radio (“Grand Hotel,” “First Nighter,” “Lux Radio Theater,” “Big Sister,” dozens more), by moving from in drama towards the modern today. sound. Jim’s caliber talent is the rule, not the exception, at Storcr stations – Bob and Ray in New York, Joe Niagara in Philadelphia, Jim Ucbclhart in Toledo, Bob Murphy in Detroit, Barbara Becker in Milwaukee. . . people and programming are focused on what the market likes best, rather than a fixed formula. Individuality is another reason why all Storcr stations are IMPORTANT STATIONS IN THE IMPORTANT MARKET LOS ANGELES PHILADELPHIA CLEVELANO NEW YORK TOLEDO DETROIT KGBS WIBG WJIV mis WSPD IfJBK STORER MIAMI MILWAUKLJGBANO CLEVELANO WIBG WJIV mis WSPD STORER MIAMI MILWAUKEE CLEVELANO ATLANTA TOLEDOJI-DETROIT CGBStrQIXjiro DETROIT CGBSWIGW-1MROIT BRQW. fi ‘WAGA-Ti IVSPD-TI IV] BK- Tl Please. This is the Television with 2. Under Dufy. Why do they call it Channel 2? There you will find. KPRC-TV is over 12 years old, smooth and soft. That’s really how long it takes to fix a station. Water? Pretty much. Thanks dear. The lightweight and legendary blended Texas Television. Proven for sale results. Imported into the United States from Houston, Texas by Edward Petry & Co., National Representatives.courtesy of Grant’s’ SPONSOR-SCOPE 24 DECEMBER 1962 / c^um ita Interpretation and commentary on the most significant tv / radio news and marketing of the week What the Madison Avenue tv sector expected to set the news pattern in 1963 ? The consensus, in a nutshell, is this: the FCC’s efforts to clip the tentacles to the economy and power of networks and to use the hroadcast industry in a disciplinary wagon with the NAB and the FCC itself go hand in hand. The sector is not entirely sure what the impact of these efforts will be on them and their clients, but their overall predictions and impressions of things to come can be formed as follows: • The Administration seems determined to model the control and direction of networks and the hroadcast field in general along SEC lines, where NAB was encouraged to assume the burden of self-regulation and eventually the FCC made their mutnally-agrecd-to code of conduct as “law of laud.” • He will remove the networks from any deemed excessive control by the Administration over the various elements that make up the structure of their business and will be specifically passed on to their area of ​​operation and competition. • The Administration seems to want to achieve these goals before the next election campaign, something that could be mentioned as part of the record. • Explain to networks in due course that, with regard to the content of their program schedules, more energy should be given to fulfilling their public service obligations than to arguing with each other over ratings. • Through restrictions placed on network programing control, opportunities will be opened for creative enthusiasm from outside, i.e. stations, freelance producers and advertising agencies. Whether agencies will be prepared or interested in tackling this challenge is another question. • The pendulum in this instance is moving away from networks and the role of agencies meanwhile is to anticipate the extent and therefore put their clients, through suggestion and guidance, in a viable position. Benton & Bowles has hit a sort of jackpot this season in the number of shows it can watch on the top 15 of tv networks, using Nielsen November II as the base. The B&B collection in that category is six, two more than any other agency. The agency leaders in the top 15, and their programs here: Young & Rnbicam Lucy Show Jack Benny Gunsmoke I Have a Secret Leo Burnett Beverly Hillbillies Red Skelton Garry Moore Ed Sullivan J. Walter Thompson Red Skelton Lucy Show Candid Camera Benton & Bowles Red Skelton Ben Casey Danny Thomas Andy Griffith Gunsmoke Dick Van Dyke P.S .: William Esty has two, Hillbillies and Moore. Judging from the negotiation activity taking place between the agencies and the network, the wide difference in leadership rating between CBS TV and the other two networks will not have any adverse impact on the sponsorship image for the first. 1963 quarter. The business was present in terms of total commercial minutes sold but many of the upcoming batches were sold on niarkdown. The summary of it all is this: the schedules are Ioade gs edged close to $ 5 million against smoking, child drinking, and more. ” Collins said he will continue with plans to recommend changes to the Code. He recalled the CBS documentary The Teen Age Smoker, and said it provided “huge documentation that underlies my views.” Volcano p.S. show.Even a casual observer of the year’s events, on Broadcast Row, it is clear that so many public service programs presented by the three networks came up for the high blood pressure controversy on the part of relevant and unrelated advertisers. , various government agents, various organizations and, as is customary, pro bono publico, or Indignant Viewer who prefers to identify himself by phone or in writing. Among the major “headache” producers of the year were these controversial documentaries and dramatic presentations: CBS TV, despite various pressures, aired an abortion episode on The Defenders. Subsequent surveys revealed that more than 70% liked the production. Some 8u% thought it appropriate and appropriate to show. Some C4% did not notice that other sponsors were on the scene for the occasion. Some 92% thought the abortion problem was presented fairly in The Defenders. Showing vigorous journalism behavior, CBS TV annoyed a number of Bostonians and other Massachusetts residents when it offered Biography of a Bookie. CBS 1 V has been accused of showing an unfair and distorted picture of gambling in Boston. The FCC, among others, backed up CBS and denied the state’s outrageous statement. N’BC TV also raised the hackles of several Xewburgh, N.Y., city officials with its documentary titled Baltic of Xcwbnroh. Here, again, the FCC disagreed with the Newburgh official that the documentary was biased and lacking ohjee ii \ ity. Another hot potato on the front of the NBC TV documentary was David Brinkley’s presentation of The Great Highway Robbery which discusses highway construction that has accused some individuals of graft and corruption. Before the end of the year, NBC was slapped with a §500,000 libel suit by the state of New Hampshire that, among other things, said it was caught with “public sarcasm and ridicule.” In December, NBC TV finally announced The Tunnel, a powerful documentary describing the actual construction of an escape route for more than 50 East Berliners. The documentary, prior to its presentation, provoked intense protest from our State Department as well as questionable glances from the East and West Get man governments. Smith-Hiss show. Perhaps the most volcanic public service presentation of the year was ABC TV’s presentation of Howard K. Smith’s political obituary to Richard Nix-on. There have been attempts at cancellation on the part of ABC TV sponsors and there have been some affiliates who have refused to carry the program. One of the main issues seems to revolve around the rights of sponsors to censor news treatment by attempting to cancel their contracts for the non-broadcast programs in question. ABC TV received heavy penalties from many rightwingers for its presentation of the program, but primarily the network was applauded by industry leaders and the press for maintaining editorial freedom and the continued right to present what it considered worthy of news. To explain his position on the matter, ABC TV news chief Hagerty appeared on Smith’s program a week after the Hiss incident. “Surrender to previous censorship and the pressures of personal attacks and economic boycotts is the surrender of the basic right to freedom of the press,” Hagerty asserted. “We will never give up this right, or compromise. Doing so is a betrayal of our responsibility as a news medium.” FCC Chairman Minow supported Hagerty in his efforts to keep broadcast journalism free. At a news conference, President Kennedy said he did not see the program “but I think Mr. Hagerty and Mr. Minow removed the view where 1 am as a condolence.” SPONSOR ’24 Dec 1 9G2 Net daytime rates. As expected, tv networks announced daytime inuease, due to the ever-growing]} audience. Effective next inontli, CB.S TV is tipping the morning snip lately. On ABC TV, lates will increase for the entire day’s schedule except for Ernie Ford and Discovery. NBC TV fixed its day-time rate structure a few months ago.TvB’s third cpiaiterh report last month revealed total spot time hillings of 5151,922,000, a fat increase of approximately 17 2 with many blessings from the Federal government. In the New York area, WNDT made its appearance on Channel 13 after a labor dispute with \ FTRA Meanwhile, the “Fourth Network,” along with National Educational Tele- (Move to page C3) ’62 had a new satellite , powerful documentary, etv, and the big fatigue RCA tried to launch its latest active repeater satellite but it experienced a power problem. The Xcw Relay is likely to be launched on s]> i ing by I9G3 Piers Anderton (r), man of NBC News in West Berlin, who narrated “The 1 uiniel.” story of escape from East Berlin, NBC made i> 10,000 contribution to lunnel die Edward R. Murrow (1) emceed opening program for WNDT, N.Y. It is considered to be the most important educational outlet in the country. AFTRA strike broke premiere The end of an era came to the networks when \ BC TV gave a boot to the colorful Olher Treyz, after a not -so -evil reign of about five years. Trey/, is presentlv working .is, i \ .p. for Warner Bros. SPONSOR/24 deci mi! Er 1962 1962 YEAR-END REPORT: RADIO NEWSMAKERS OF THE YEAR Matthew J. Culligan The former Interpublic executive and one-time boss of NBC Radio made headlines this summer when it hit Curtis Publ. reached broadcast land to name him leader R. Peter Straus The president of radio station WMCA, New York, took a major step forward in broadcast editorializing, and sought a Supreme Court decision for James ’redistribution C. Hagerty Not shocked by the threat of defective advertiser tions, the ABC news chief firmly stood behind Howard K. Smith’s inclusion of Hiss in Nixon’s famous “political obituary” Radio should be remembered ’62 In top stories: FCC freezes am applications/radio networks in black/fm seees national promotion Office/FCC reports dropped to ’61 revenue in 1962 is far from a year of hiatus for radio. It’s been a year of vast change – some up, some down. On the sunny side are the reports of radio networks that they are operating in black, some for the first time in several years. The growing fm medium found it was growing bigger, with fm homes close to 15 million, news of some important national purchases, and plans for a promotion bureau in New York. Radio (and tv) news got a strong foot in the courtroom door at the trial of Billie Sol Estes in Texas, another milestone in the fight of planes for freedom of information. Daytimers got a long -sought hit, if not a home run, by getting ok to increase airtime at sunrise. On the darker side, FCC tabulations on radio revenue blurred the outlook at the end of the year, noticing a decline in station revenues and revenue for 1961. And the industry was amazed when the U.S. re -evaluated.Census Bureau radio homes showed a visit. penetration from the report in 1950. But whatever happened to the radio in the past 12 months, 1962 dropped to the books as the year of deep freeze.The rapid freeze. In May of this year, the Federal Communications Commission issued a mandate that no more applications for am licenses would be considered, radio broadcasters were surprised at the quick action, but in retrospect they need to know this is coin. Back in late January, early February, NAB had already started spinning about the growing “population” of radio. The group’s joint board of directors appointed a radio committee to review the problem. At that time, there were approximately 3,700 am stations on the air and fm was fast approaching 1,000 stations. Signal and engineering problems were important, but what met those requests for elbow room was the fact that, at I960, 81 a.m. markets with three or more stations were running in the red, the FCC said. . And nearly one-third of all radio stations are below the revenue line. Clearer warnings came at the NAB Convention in April, when NAB president LeRoy Collins stood before the member and declared: “There is no more important task before us than finding remedies for excess radio population. ” At the same convention, FCC Chairman Newton N. Minow kept the ball rolling: “I propose an informal, face-to-face, shirtsleeve working conference” between FCC and NAB committees to discuss Minow’s overpopulation Proposed by the FCC Chairman the FCC-NAB sessions to study the overpopulation in April, ordered to freeze the month later 26 SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 s as the year of the big ‘deep freeze 7 the problem of overpopulation radio. No waivers. By the end of the month, an NAB-appointed committee with nine members will be ready to sit on the FCC in such a shirt-sleeve session. Ten days later, the FCC’s “partial” freeze was turned on. The government’s sudden action left 60 riot license-seeking groups collectively losing $ 200,000 or more in engineering and legal fees. Networks show revenue. But while local stations are scrambling to avoid the FCC cold, the nation’s four radio networks have some good news to report. Mutual Broadcasting, said president Robert Hulleigh, would go into the black in 1962 for the first time in 10 years. The executive v.p. of NBC. William K. McDaniel told affiliates in December that the radio network was in the black for the third consecutive year, and blacker in 1962 than ever before. CBS Radio previously reported that it didn’t go black in 1961 but would definitely be black in ’62. NBC also indicated to its affiliates that advertising rates are in for an increase next year, and announced that the network is partnering with A. C. Nielsen Co. in a plan to measure listening to self-powered radios. ABC Radio’s new rate hike will take effect on January 1 with increases from 8-35%. President Robert Pauley called improvements to the station lineup and clearances, as well as greater advertising demand, as reasons for the increase. Another issue of money on networks arose in June when the CBS Radio Affiliates Board clarified to the network that it wanted to revise the compensation policy – to return the money as a medium for station payments rather than programs for sale. . local. CBS Radio adjusted the change, on the following conditions: 1) Year Of fm progress. Fm broadcasters had a field year that climaxed with a $ 150,000 contract between Magnavox, through Kenyon & Eckhardt, and National Assn. of FM Broadcasters in a deal that moved money for the time from the stations to NAFMB to establish a research and promotion office in New York. NAFMB is currently purchasing for a director for that office’s staff, which could run for a year on Magnavox funds. Just a month before that, in September, it was confirmed that General Electric had purchased a one-hour Victor Borge program to be scheduled weekly on a 40-station QXR Network hookup. The agency is Young S: Rubicam.Two important research projects gave fm a solid shot in the arm in 1962. In June a QXR Network study estimated between 11 and 16 million fm homes, and the growth rate was set at 2 million sets per year. Another study, by The Pulse, Inc., put the number of fm homes at 1 1.890,500, or 31.2% of all television homes. Both studies documented the theory that fm homes have higher incomes. The Radio Advertising Bureau began the year in January with the announcement of the PvAB Test Plan to sell and manage major radio test campaigns to advertisers. It proposed that participating stations pay 10% of the charges received to RAl5 for effectiveness research. Along with this plan by advertisers, RAB announced in April an accompanying six-point plan to make radio more attractive to large ad agencies. The RAB was in the midst of more radio news in April when president Kev announced to B. Sweeney his plan to resign from that post in February 1963. A scan of the RAB committee- (Please move to page 64) Encouraged radio editing Networks had a year of profit Secretary of State Dean Rusk (1) spoke at NAB presi- Networks announced revenues in 19C2. NBC Radio’s only dent was LeRoy Collins during Washington conference chief, Wm. McDaniel (r). and newsman Frank McGee (c) in broadcast editorials attended by radio men inspect new “Radio Central” with v.p. Wm. Trevarthan SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 27 mm AR ir ur am Edward A. Gray Problems revolving around product protection were highlighted when media chief Ted Bates began harassing Westinghouse, stressing the advertiser’s right to insulation Edmund C. B .inker Its announcement by former CBS member as successor to RAB chief Kevin Sweeney has allayed heavy speculation along Madison Ave. and climaxed in long search 1962 YEAR-END REPORT: AGENCIES Account give-and-take Y&R and JWT winners with $ 13 million each / L&F slipped — two giant clients went to JWT / F & S & R added consumer accounts / Arrived computers Lucille Ball Aside from picking top ratings for her Lucy Show on tv, the red-headed star bought a tier part of the ex-husband in Oesilu, became head of the multi-million dollar company Top winners and losers, the advent of computers in agencies, and the huge acquisition of consumer accounts of an industrial house, topped the list of highlights in advertising agencies in 1962. Headliners on wins and losers column to advertising agencies because of its ear account transfers, including Young & Rubicam, which earned approximately $ 13 million, J. Walter Thompson, which reached the same level, Lambert & Feasley, which lost four accounts worth approximately $ 17 -18 million. Three of L&F’s clients went to JWT with about $ 7.5 million in bills, while Lennen & Newell received the remainder. Another highlight for the year, was the increasing acquisition of Fuller & Smith & Ross, then known in tiade as an “industry agency,” of several consumer accounts, notably the §4 million Lestoil bundle (about 90 % which was spent on tv) from Sackel- jackson. Great benefits of Y&R. Y&R earned S13 million, primarily by acquiring Chrysler corporate §10 million from Leo Burnett. The agency acquired another §2 million from L&N through Cluett, Peabody & Co. (Arrow domestic). It also earned approximately $ Si/o million (the estimate is between a million) in the Playtex girdle account managed by Ted Bates & Co. (Bates also received approximately §4 million to manage the International Latex Living Bra and Living Girdle included in Reach, McCUnton.) Y&R’s biggest loss was the neaih $ 3-million account for Union Oil Co. of California who went to Smock, Debnam & Waddell. JWT raised $ 13 million. JWT acquired two really big ones of nearly $ 8 million by Phillips Petroleum and $ 5 million by Listerine and $ 2.5 million by other Warner-Lambert businesses. The Phillips switch was made following a quarter-century tenure at Lambert & Feasley. Warner-Lambert’s Listerine account is also included in the L&F. Another addition to JWT: Helene Curtis (§2.5 million), which gave JWT a net of §13 million. L&F also lost approximately $ 3l/2 million worth of business to L&N for items by W-L’s Fizzies, Richard Hudnut, and Du Barry. Two major losses for JWT, mentioned below, are approximately $ 5 million. All of the loss of account rain not being removed by any sunlight caused huge speculation in advertising circles at the end of the year about the future of L&F. As directed in Sponsor-Scope (24 September), W-L is trying to decide whether to sell or merge its agency, or whether it will be accepted into the corporate structure. This week, or next, L&F will move from Morris Plains, N. J., to the W-L office in Manhattan. Other major changes. Nine other major account changes at the nation’s leading network and spot tv advertiser are: 1) General Mills moved the §7-million Betty Crocker baking mix-cake-frosting account from BBDO to Needham, Louis & Brorby. In 1961, General Mills was ranked eighth in network tv advertisers and 25th in the spot, with a total of approximately $ 24 million. Betty 2H SPONSOR/24 December 1962 features activity in 1962 at Crocker products agencies involved in the transfer of the die agency worth approximately §4i/9 million of this total (see table below) . 2) American Home Products Corp. who moved Dristan with approximately §5 million in tv charges from Tatham-Laird to William Esty Co. American Home is a big tv expense. Second only to P&G in 1961, AH spent $ 34 million on network advertising, and $ 8.75 million as the ninth largest buyer of the spot. 3) Moved by Scott Paper Co. its approximately $ 2.5 million budget to Scotties and Scott Tissue from JWT to Bates. Approximately 60-80% of it is spent on electronic media, mainly tv.4) Lestoil (Pine Lestoil, Sparkle Lestoil, Lestare, and Lestoil spray starch) was moved from Sackel-Jackson to Fuller & Smith 8: Ross with approximately $ 6 million for tv advertising and another half million dollars for other media. The company is 21st on the list of 19C1 spot tv buvers ($ 4,002,- 070). 5) Moved by Nestle Co. the Instant Nescafe from Est) ‘to McCann- Erickson. Product charges at approximately S5 million. Nestle Co. was 20th among 1901 spot tv buyers ($ 4,718-, 820). 0) Ha/el bishop took Lanolin Plus from Daniel S; Charles and brought it to Kenyon S; Eckhardi. Approximately 75-80% of the $ 3-million budget is allocated to broadcast media, mostly tv. 7) Brown S: Williamson Tobacco Corp., which converted its S6.5-million Bclair cigarette account from bates to Kcycs, Madden & Jones, 11th among 1901 network tv advertisers ($ 14,132,771). Approximately 80%, of Belair’s budget is allocated to video. 8) Colgate-Palmolive applied for $ 2.5-million worth of Wildroot balm to D’Arcy Advertising at bates ’expense. C-P was fourth among 1901 spot tv advertisers ($ 14,989,170) and sixth among top network tv buyers ($ 21,513,910). 9) National Daily Products Corp. went. from JWT to Foote, Cone & Bclding with $ 2.5 million and the Kraft Foods line of its dinner and paste products. National Dairy is 24th among lop 1901 networks spending on tv nationwide ($ 8,905.- 950). F&S&R increases consumers. F&S&R, in addition to this year’s Lestoil gain, also acquired Pakistan International Airlines from Charles W. H «yt Co., Renault autos from XL&B, American Chicle Co. (Clorets mints and Clorcts gum) fioin KfcE, and Xational Cotton Council of America from Douglas Simon Advertising – all consumer accounts. In August 1901, F&S&R received four Lelm 8: Fink products not administered by Bates–Ly-settes, Stri-dex medicated pads, Xoreen hair rinse, and Hinds honey and almond cream. The agency also oversees public relations for Xoreen, IMA, and Renault. Computers in use. As for the computers (see story on page 3 (5), the pinky, flashing monsters were lit on BB DO; iiul Y&R, while JW’l had ordered. The Honeywell 400 computer of KliDO is used in marketing, media and research; Y&R’s IBM 1620 model is a media computer, and JWT’s RCA 301 will be used for business data processing, market research, and media analysis.^ Clients, agencies and billing on major 1962 account shifts Account Net tv 1961* Spot tv 1961 ** All-media billings involved From To Chrysler $ 4,151,167 $ 1,112,370 $ 10,000,000 Leo Burnett Y&R Phillips Petroleum 322,289 2,064,900 8,000,000 L&F JW,000 4,3,2,246 Listerine L&F JWT General Mills (Betty Crocker cak2, etc.) 4,238,656 355,960 7,000,000 BBDO NL&B Lestoil Co. 4,662,670 6,000,000 Sackel-Jackson F&S&R Scott Paper (Scotties, ScotTissue) 1,935,180 801,650 2,500,000 JWT Bates Chrysler’s §10-million walk troin Leo Burnett Co. in \ ifcR large net show size and moved to a year. s budget on tv last year – over 53 million. 1’liillips and Listerine moves put> 13-niilIion dciu in L&F iource: • TvB/l.XA-HAft •• TvB/Rorabaugh P0NS0R/24 DECEMBER 19C2 29 NEWSMAKERS OF THE YEAR 1962 YEAR-END REPORT George B: WASHINGTON. Storer This has been an important year for the president of Storer. He was elected chairman, named Pulse’s Man of the Year, paid a record $ 10.9 million for a radio station, WMGM, N. Y. George H. Gribbin Named to succeed Sigurd Larmon as chair man, Y&R proxy is one of the first take a computer ball, installed. “High Assay Media Model” after BBDO unveiled machine lir- ck Donald H. McGannon For Westinghouse Brdcst. president, 1962 was a busy year. His company developed a new formula for product protection, and bought WINS, N. Y., for $ 10 million Washington is quieter Among the top stories: FCC threat to licenses / NAB- tobacco inconvenience / The commission changes favor New Frontier / FTC loss on “sandpaper” ruling in WASHINGTON It was a quiet hearing in front of Washington for broadcasting and for advertising, compared to the frantic and sensational Congressional hearings in last years. However, a bare narration of the events of 19G2 will be filled with a long document. The final chapter of the FCC network study hearings began in 19G2 with a twist. This includes programming, the only shortcoming in the long -ago Barow Report. The year ended with an unauthorized “leak” of Part I of Ashbrook Bryant’s report at the hearings in January. The manner in which the broad recommendations are presented in that report is consistent with the often unique nature of the entire FCC network analysis. NAB split with Collins. The year also ended when the NAB split into factions arguing over what to do about its president, nothing too new for that organization. LeRoy Collins’ attack on cigarette advertisers allegedly aimed at getting a juvenile market for that product seems in nature a last straw for some at NAB. The recommendations in Bryant’s report are that the NAB is in the FCC like the National Assn. of Securities Dealers to the SEC, on the grounds that NASD’s actions result in Securities and Exchange actions against brokers, and the networks are prevented from syndication, regulated, and limited in the number of aired programs that they can own, among others. These are set to remain for some time before the FCC can come down to acceptance or rejection. Collins ’proposal is also set to stay in 19G3. A TV Code Review Board meeting in December just decided to have a study on the tobacco question for presentation at the entire NAB board meeting in Phoenix in January. The same Board meeting was to answer the question of Collins ’recovery and, if so, on what terms. Threat to FCC license. It was a year in which the FCC continued to threaten to refuse to renew licenses, and subject to appeal in court, KRLA’s license, Pasadena, was actually revoked. The Commission makes greater use of short-term license renewals and its newly acquired power to impose fines. The year ended when FCC Chairman Newton Minow held at least one promise that the Commission would soon vote his way on the most important matters. E. William Henry was named to succeed John S. Cross, a true New Frontiersman who succeeded the one who voted against Minow as often as not.Henry was not named until after the term of the Cross; The speculation ran wild, but no one thought of the same answer the White House eventually gave. Conversely, in December the White House announced earlier that the age limit would not be accepted for T. A. M. Craven, who would be 70 by the end of January. It was also announced that Broadcast Bureau chief Kenneth A. Cox would replace Craven. ‘While Craven’s phi-SP0NS0R/24 December 1962 than in previous years, but not blunt losses directly opposed to Minow, Cox’s ideas were in line with the chairman’s ideas. So when the Cox appointment takes effect, Minow will have at least three votes on most matters of any importance, can count on Robert Bartley’s support in a good part of the time, with Frederick Ford and Robert E. Lee some of the time, and with Rosel Hyde almost out of time. A “packed” FTC. The FTC, meanwhile, was early “packed” by the current administration’s appointments; four out of five members, in fact. But this Commission in 1962 showed less regulatory enthusiasm than when Kintner was chairman under the Eisenhower Administration. There are signs at the end of the year that point to a step up in speed. An FTC “consumer relations” coordinator was appointed in December, with the stated intent of informing consumers that they can complain to the FTC. He will also work with the dying White House Consumer Council, and could inspire that group to take action. Federal Trade lost a court case in Boston on the grounds that it made the “shaving sandpaper” mandate too broad, although it was upheld on the allegation that the commercial was, itself, misleading. The court also cast doubt on whether the FTC could have made ad agencies co-defendants that precludes clear liability for misrepresentation on the part of the agency. “Sandpaper” is covered. When all the returns are in, this case may not really be the set-back for the Commission that seemed original. However, there is no covering up the bitterness of the FTC’s defeat in Congress in its demand for power to end challenged activities through cease-and-desist (Please turn to page 63) ’62 began when ’61 ended: The FCC hearing on network practices Programming was the subject of hearings that heard testimony from the leaders of all three tv networks: NBC’s Sarnoff, CBS’s Stanton, and Treyz, after ABC TV Congressional action favored private control of Telstar Congress ended the debate on government versus private control of international tv by supporting the ATS.T. project. Shows Telstar relay station, Andover, Mc. Washington has successfully put its elbow behind the expansion of etv The opening of WNDT, educational tv in New York City, marked the beginning of the era for non-commercial tv. Above: Ed Murrow, USIA; Howard Shephard, WNDT SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 31 1962 YEAR-END REPORT: AGENCY BILLINGS i Charles Brower BBDO, led by president Brower, sparked a major discussion in the time machine buying industry when his agency first computer installation Dave Lundy When rep John Blair combined its two tv sales arms under one operational tag, Blair Television, the former executive v.p. of the Blair Television Assoc.is named leader Hubbell Robinson He returned to CBS TV in March as senior v.p. manages the programs, despite the fact he left his executive v.p. post there three years ago to produce own programs Radio/tv has surpassed all Top 50 agencies with strong years in broadcast charges, but survey shows uneven growth in total dollars and share of business Broadcast advertising got another lucrative year in 1962. When the last Addition of machines stopped this week, Madison Avenue treasurers would have their spending on air at approximately 9% before 1961. The collective estimate of the top 50 ad agencies reached a total value of nearly $ 3.5 billion. If this total, approximately §1.8 billion, or 52%, is in radio/tv bills.The broadcast estimate of the top 50 is h 8.7% higher than last year. The growth of total charges across all media seems to be less buoyant. The top 50 agencies earned §3,455.3 million this year, up 7% before 1961, but nearly 2% less than the percentage increase in air charges. In 1962 itself, the list of the top 10 did not change in material from previous years, although there was some change in position. A remarkable advancement was made by Leo Burnett, who rose from eighth to fifth place in air billings; a drop was experienced by McCann – Erickson, who took it from fifth place down to tenth. (Its Interpublic sister, McCann-Marschalk, however, appeared for the first time on the agency’s top 50 list.) Based on information provided by leading agencies, the sponsor estimates that radio/ radio charges rose by §144 million. tv of the top 50, or 8.7%, to §1,795.8 million. Total billing from all media is estimated at §3,455.3 million, which is a gain of §266.5 million or 7.01%. Within the broadcast area, the top 50 tv network charges were estimated to be §1,019.3 million, representing an advance of §74.5 million or 7.9%. TV space increased 10.6% or §53 million, to §553.5 million. Radio billing also went up. Network advertising placed in the top 50 agencies showed a gain of §3.5 million or 9.6%, up §39.6 million. Business in the radio area is estimated at §183.4 million, yielding an additional §1.7 million, or 0.93%. Top 10 dominant. The trend continued towards the concentration of national broadcast billing. Analysis of the returns, provided by agencies to sponsor each year, shows that there has been a steady shift toward this concentration within the first 50 agencies. In 1956, a larger portion of the broadcasting budget was spent on a broad base; that is, approximately 40 agencies are responsible for 63.6% of air charges. However, the share of the broad base has continued to decline since 1956: in 1961 it dropped to 51.7%, and in 1962 – for the first time – the largest number of agencies spent the smallest share of the broadcast dollar. In round numbers, 40 agencies spent only 49% of the total for the top 50, and decisive control over the national wind budget rests with, the top 10 agencies on the list. Not everyone gets it. A detailed analysis of air charges over seven years shows that there has been uneven growth of ad stores in the top 50 groups. For example, the total dollars recorded by the “giants” (numbering three to five agencies) increased significantly- 32 SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 other media, which got a 9% increase, but the share of business controlled by these stores has actually declined. The same pattern also tits in smaller agencies. Their share in the total air billing of the top 50’s dropped significantly, even as their dollar costs were higher. And, accordingly, there is a small group of medium-to-large stores that increase a larger share of charges each year. The hanging tides and cross-currents of agency growth can be determined by a crude statistical analysis. If the range of wind charges (which are in the top 50 is from $ 8.7 million to §155 million) is represented of an artificial size of from 0 to 10, then the most 30-odd agencies can be seen below, within the range from 0 to 2. The middle tier of this pyramid will hold approximately 10 agencies , in the 3 to G range; the third tier, five agencies, running from 7 to 9 in scale, with five “giants” in the final tier of 10-plus. varies each year but the overall proportions remain unchanged.In a seven-year review, the lower tier contains 30 to 33 agencies, the second tier, 10 to 12, the third, 3 to 6 agencies, and the highest bai tang or stratum, 2 to 5 agencies.) Analysis of growth. Although this “model” of statistics is relatively primitive, it provides important and surprising light on the country’s growth problems. eading agencies.Since 195G, there has been a steady reduction in the share of broadcast billing controlled by both the smallest and largest agencies within the top 50. In 1 956, the share of air billing is controlled by the lowest group of agencies (approx. -about 30 out of 50) is 21.3%. By the end of 1 902, the share had dropped to 18%; this means a relative loss of 25.9%. At the second level of the hierarchy, a group of approximately one dozen agencies controls 39. 3% of the Agency Billing Patterns 1956-1962 GROUPS WITHIN THE TOP 50 | 4 | 3 | 2 1 Approximate number of agencies per group 30 to 33 10 to 12 3 to 6 2 to 5 Relative position of each group within the range of charges from 0 to 10 0-2 3-6 7-9 10+ Part of the group across Billings All Media % 1956 Broadcast % 32.6 24.3 24.4 39.3 9.5 14.8 33.4 30.4 All Media % 1960 Broadcast % 32.7 29.6 31.8 11.1 12.7 25.9 I 25.6 All Media % 1961 Broadcast % 32.1 29.4 21.8 22.3 18.2 21.3 27.7 26.8 All Media% 1962 Broadcast% 27.4 18.0 30.9 31.0 22.1 i 30.0 19.5 21.0 Group movement, 1956-1962: All media Broadcast -15.9% -25.9% +26.6 -21.1% + 132%! + | 102.7% -41.6% 1-30.9% Each sub-group within the top 50 agencies has had varying success in holding its position as radio/tv charges have risen. Group No. 2 (medium-to-large agencies) was the only agency group to increase its share of the die broadcast budget SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 19G2 33 top 50’s air billing in 1956, but in 1962 their share dropped to 31%, for at a relative loss of 21.1%. The third, penultimate group of medium- to large-sized agencies increased its broadcast share, from 14.8% to 30%; a relative gain of 102.7%. (The number of agencies in this category varies, from a low three to a high six.) The latter group, head-and-shoulders above the rest of the air charges, varies from two to five in number. The share of radio/tv bills spent by this group decreased by 30.9% over the seven years; in 1956, the leading group controlled 30.4% of the top 50 air billings, but in 1962 this share dropped to 21% of the total. (However, it should be noted that the total dollar bill of the “giant” group has increased over the years, as the amount of money spent on radio/tv has increased.) Total billing trend. The apparent trend in broadcast charges is partially confirmed by analyzing the movement in total charges from all media, placed in the top 50 agencies. In the “giant agency” category, the share of total all-media billing dropped from 33.4% to 19.5% (a relative loss of 41.6%). In the medium- to large-sized agency group, the share of total billing increased from 9.5%to 22.1%, a relative gain of 132%. Within the top 50, the “bottom 30” agencies seem to have been cannibalized by the above, as the total share of this group’s billing from all media dropped The top 50 television and radio advertising agencies Agency & Rank Rank 1961 Total air $ (million) 1962 1961 Total agency $ (million) 1962 1961 % Air to total 1962 1961 $ Spent on tv ’62 (million) Network Spot $ Spent on radio ’62 (million) Network Spot 1. JWT 1 155.0 295.0 125.0 295.0 295.5 43.0 105.0 35.0 4.5 9.5 2. eats 2 116.0 117.0 140.0 142.5 83.0 82.0 63.0 48.0 0.06 4.4 3. Y&R 4 105.0 100.0 223.4 240.0 47.0 41.8 71.0 25.0 12 3.0 6.0 4. OBDO 3 100.0 100.0 98.5 668. 6 51.7 59.2 33.9 1.3 4.1. D-F-S 9 75.0 66.0 107.1 100.0 70.0 66.0 41.0 26.0 2.0 6.0 9. COMPTON 10 72.0 58.6 102.0 90.0 70.0 65 .0 .0 .0. 0 83.0 166.0 205.0 40.4 40.9 35.0 17.2 0.8 14.0 11. Ayer 12 65.0 56.4 162.5 141.0 40.0 40.0 20.5 24.5 2.5 17.5 12. L&N 11 60.5 56.7 100.0 90.0 59.0 63.0 42.0 16.0 2.5 13. 5.0 14. SSC & B 15 47.75 41.1 68.4 62.5 62.0 65.0 26.65 12.3 5.8 15. K&E 14 46.5 43.1 93.0 85.0 50.0 50.0 35.0 7.0 0.3 4.2 16. Gray 17 40.0 30.5 68.0 56.0 60.0 54.0 ’23 .0 16.0 0.1 0.9 17. 28.4 88.6 81.0 44.0 35.0 12.0 18.0 2.0 7.0 18. NC & K 21 34.2 27.7 48.8 38.0 70.0 73.0 19.6 11.5 3.1 19. C-Ewald 16 32.0 32.0 96.9 96.1 33.0 33.3 21.0 5.0 4.0 2.0 20. C-Mithun 25 2 12.6 9.2 1.4 5.4 21. AXON 24 22.0 19.0 34.9 32.0 63.0 59.0 19.2 1.0 0.3 1.5 25. WADE 23 21.8 21.2 26.5 26.0 82.0 81.0 1.0 0.3 1.5. s. The group of “average” agency sizes Iras experienced a drop in broadcast billing, but recovered 26.6% benefit on its share of the total bill. The third and fourth groups, consisting of giants and nearby, are heavily involved in securing and maintaining the largest broadcast accounts, and it may be significant that the change of position of these, on their part of total all-media. billing, their fates are almost identical on the part of broadcast billing. The “average” size of the group, which is likely to lose in radio/tv battles, seems to have been successful in strengthening its charges from print media. The lowest (and largest in number) group within the top 50 lost in both areas. How big is “big”? Is there some kind of natural law that prevents unlimited expansion? No clear answer to this question is available, but among the factors that are likely to contribute to the shrinking share of business enjoyed by leaders are: conflict-of-interest provisions; the multiplicity of products from a small number of industrial titans, with the consequence of the trend of splitting accounts between several agencies; and the accelerated service problems of fewer, but larger, accounts. These three factors have undoubtedly contributed to the seeming paradox that, although the total billing of the few largest ad agencies has increased, their share in the kitty has actually dropped. ^ expenditures, with total, network, and spot billing in 1962 Agency & Rank Rank 1361 Total air $ (million) 1362 1361 Total agency $ (million) 1362 1361 % Air to 1362 total 1361 $ Spent on tv ’62 (million ) Network Spot $ spent on Radio ’62 (Millions) Network Spot 26. Gardner 26 20.7 18.6 49.7 40.0 41.5 46.0 3.97 12.2 0.2 4.2 27. DCS & S 27 19.7 18.2 27.4 26.7 70.0 68.0 3.9 13.1 0.7 2.0 28. EWR & R 22 19.5 23.2 57.35 6LJ 34.0 38.0 ~ RL.98 _ 4.25 0.85 2A ~ 29. DDB 37 16.3 11.3 65.2 45.0 25.0 25.0 7.0 6.3 3.0 30. T-Laird 28 15.6 17.9 61.0 26.0 25.5 69.0 7.2 7.1 0.2 1.1 31. Parkson 32 14.5 13.5 17.0 16.0 85.0 84.0 13.7 0.8 32. DONER 31 13.6 13.6 17.0 17.0 80.0 80.0 4.0 4.5 0.5 4.6 33. McCANN-M. 13.6 36.7 37.0 3.3 5.7 0.1 4.5 34. GB & B 38 13.1 11.1 16.0 14.0 81.4 69.0 6.1 4.2 2.8 35. GMB 34 12.5 12.5 44.5 39.0 28.2 32.0 <-total 8.3- ^-total 4.2-> 367 5.6 2.3 0.2 4.4 37. F&S&R 33 12.2 13.1 54.0 52.4 22.6 25.0 8.5 1.8 0.4 1.5 38. Grant 30 12.0 15.0 30.0 34.0 40.0 43.0 1.5 7.5 0.5 2.5 39. Donahue & Coe 35 11.9 11.8 34.9 34.7 35.0 34.0 5.4 4.6 0.3 1.6 40. Brother 41 11.2 10.0 33.0 36.0 33.9 28.0 8.7 0.5 2.0 41. P0ST-M0RR 11.2 16.2 69.0 3.2 4.6 0.9 2.5 42. KHCCA 50 11.0 7.0 20.0 23.3 55.0 30.0 1.5 7.5 0.5 1.5 43. Clinton 41 10.2 10.0 20.4 20.0 50.0 50.0 7.0 2.5 44. Weiss 40 10.0 10.1 19.6 18.1 51.0 55.0 5.0 3.2 0.9 0.9 45. R-MCCLINTON 45 9.6 8.9 24.0 25.0 40.0 35.6 4.8 4.3 0.5 46. North 44 9.5 9.0 17.0 16.0 56.0 56.0 5.6 3.7 0.2 47. PKL 9.15 13.0 70.0 6.5 0.05 48. H-C & H 49 9.0 7.1 15.8 15.5 56.8 45.7 7.2 1.8 49. MW&S 43 8.9 9.3 18.0 19.7 49.0 48.0 .9. 36.0 4.8 0.9 2.0 1.0 SPONSOR/24 DECEMBER 1962 35 Non-Man award for non- men of the year Non-payment? Blame the non -human. He is behind 3 new automated spot billing services, which (BCH) used his data cards and tapes to trim the Machines, not the people, to create some of the biggest stories in the broadcasting world this year. Systems, rather than ideas, seem to make the best contribution to ad press. Some of them were short-lived (T els tar had a front-page birth in July, and a noted-in-passing obituary in December); some are long delayed (such as the advent of fm/ stereo in the big leagues); others are uncertain and vague (who can predict the full impact of computers?). Sometimes it seems that electronic wizards are setting too fast. Madison Avenue and Studio 8-H will be filled with transistors and tapes, with the rest of us queuing up for our retraining tests. But progress will not be denied: the sponsor bows to the inevitable and presents its first Oilcan Awards, from the oblique world of Non-Man. The 1962 non-man awards committee at Radio’s new salesman session was not a man, but a principle of Frequency Modulation. And when Magnavox bought #250,000 worth of fm time, 200 operators liked it. . . SATELLITE ON ORBIT BEAMS TV FROM U. S. TO EUROPE; PICTURES CLEAR IN FRANCE The not man on tv:. . .it’s time to show those remedies for headaches and upset stomach. Lookout. Here they are. Ohhhhh what we’re going through, we’re supposed to be people’s stomachs (Oilcan to Alka Seltzer, Wade Advertising & Swift-Chaplin Prods) J V V i? It took the old-fashioned am radio to develop a non-diallable, or silent, communicator. Jerry Graham, of WNEW of New York, covers the launch of Telstar.As the first reporter to allow a phonecall via the #50 million satellite, Graham was bounced back to earth with the wrong number and no broadcast. (Oilcan goes to Graham and AT&T for inspiring us with the biggest anti-machine joke of the year.) See who’s in charge: Autolog keeps its evil eye on broadcast transmitters; makes automatic signal log every half hour; has an inbuilt nervous breakdown to provide an alarm if the signal is disturbed. When computing! took over, consumers hoping they had nothing but time on their hands (The ultimate non-ma Kudner’s Maria Carayas Some managed to get in a few licks of fresh air Caught in the act of post-luncheon strolling (l-i): JWT’s Roger Morrison; Frank Ragsdale, gen. Mgr. WTVM, Colum-bus, Ga .; Harold Veltman, JWT; Bud Curran, Adam Young 1962 YEAR-END REPORT: TIMEBUYING Top award winner This is a banner year for DS: C’s Beth Black -she received SRA’s Silver Nail Timebuver Award Chicago winner The Chicago SRA Time-buyer Award to NLfcB buyer Marianne Monahan And here’s what buyers did in ’62 Ask any timebuver and she’ll tell you that the year 1962 is far away in fact, most fraternities who buy time (or its distafTers) will take more than one word: very late.For many, the year has brought higher buying speeds.The world events develop new ones vehicle advertising (i.e. space shots, etc.) and the frantic scramble to pick up the plums is turned on. A current example of timebuying “hecticness”: the newspaper strike in New York City, which, at the time of the sponsor’s press release, was still circulating intense excitement over last-minute purchases: most of it was concentrated Getting to the core of market situation Viewing tobacco crops on WITN -TV, Washington, X. C tour: Hope Martinez, BBDO; Nick Ibornone, SSC&B On WNEW-TV, N. Y., party at Hotel Plaza Seated (1-r): Russ Harris, ad mgr., American Chicle; Jack Price, WNEW-TV a.e .; Bates’ Don Zucker and Bill Conboy New “working tools” have come for part of the attention The ebbing year has spawned several timebuyer “helpers.” Thinking of the activities of the instant budget allocator and spot estimator designed by AM Radio Sales is Joe Hudack of W&L. Viewed was Norman Nelson of AM Radio Sales on the local radio campaign. Overall, however, the ebbing year had a huge increase in broadcast buying. Competitive products, politics, and current events all contributed to the increase. When they weren’t actively playing buying, time buyers got a good share in other activity. Coasters tagged her top Y&R’s Julie Herrell got the highest score in a sponsored survey of West Coast representatives They listened to presentations-on land and at sea. They drank wine and ate. They often visited stations and inspected the markets. They boarded the boat. Climb the tall towers. Enter contests. They inspected new working tools (such as AM Sales ’new spot estimator). And they went along with the station’s gimmicks and gags. And southern reps picked her Clay Stephenson’s (Houston) Helen Sanford polled highest vote on the South On Capital Cities cruise L-r: L. Stevens, Weightman; E. Jaspan, Gumbinner; B. Johnson, WPAT, N.V .; Eve Walmsley, Lewis and Gilman The year 19G2 had a mild epidemic of purchasing defects. And there was little more than the usual amount of agency jumping. (Of course, the latter was caused by account losses suffered by some agencies.) The slight panic shook the clown for several hours of buying time when computers first inserted their mechanical noses into the tiinebuying arenas.And despite assurances from some high -echelon sources, in some agencies the question that bothers some is “can mechanical gadgets replace, no matter how much you’ve learned, people?” To some consumers, the past year has brought misfortunes and misfortunes (there are people falling down the stairs, you know). In others, there are weddings, babies and various holidays. Others received kudos (and awards) for yacht racing skills, softball games, and tiine purchases. For a pictorial idea of ​​some of the events of the year, check out the photos on these pages. ^ SPONSOR/24 December 1962 39 IN CLEVELAND T H E ONLY NEGRO STATION SELLING ProgramnMd 100% for 120,000 Mogt* UfMnm ■ tomtd ot All Northtosltrn Ohio imported Negro populotlon. luy tlmt whtrt your dollor hos mort rtturn. Itll for turt what you haven’t heard at WABQ Cleveland, Ohio Bernard Howord t Co.National Representative Merry 1 Christmas y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y s Corner to our thousands of readers y y y y y y y sf if v a y y i a y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y v ^timebuyer’s corner media: what they do and say »r« «tetetetc! G! E! E! 2tgie! Gte! list is hidden for descendants, pencil in this name: John Flynn. After nearly seven years as an ace buyer for Ted Bates, New York, John will be preparing his buying equipment to sell tv time for Advertising Time Sales. During his tenure at Bates, John bought for accounts such as Whitehall Laboratories (Anarin), Boyle-Midway Division of American Home Products (Black Flag, Aciowax), and, more recently, Colgate-Palmolive’s Fab and Palmolive Soap. John will work out of the ATS New York office. Name-alike confusion dept .: The news of Bates ’John Flynn resignation could easily brighten BBDO’s John Flynn day. The last name, who buys at du Pont for BBDO, New York, is faced with some intensely confusing moments caused by his colleague buying the same name, which is easily matched by John Flynn of ATS, we’ll bet. Year-end agentc) hopper: Campbell-Mithun’s (Los Angeles) Evon Prose who was able to get a huge rep vote as the top buyer during the sponsor’s suivcn on the Coast (see “They’re the Top Buyers on the West Coast,” sponsor, January 1, 1962), moved to N. W. Ayer, Chicago. He will be the assistant media director there. A man can hardly be H3HHH punished with reasoning- in ■ Lggij | – {■ PJPj ^^ 3PA ^^^^^^ k^fl |^| Bj Herb Mendelsohn (middle ^^ ■■■■■■^PBB ^^^ B ^^ J^B^Efl picture left), at gen-^KHBfly ^^ R^L; ‘H ^era’ mana § cr OI Buffalo sta- ll w – ‘sVAtj A a ^HL ^rMV t’ ° n ^KBW, has disco \ ered S ^f ^■■■■■ «PVgff ■ a new wa ) ‘”tnc Twist. IHyi ^^ Sfl RlE Actually, however, what^B^P^E ^^^^^^ KBjPJT^PJ Hub does here is dancing- ■ hijB ing with delight. In reason, of ^Hf ^^^V^■ pJE’Jfl | course, because thou- L: 9drdrdrdr# EMS sand of letters under his feet I^1 flBfepfeT • J^K ^^ S I are a sam P nn S “f mail re- HHIHBpj P^ V | helped with a recently concluded contest at the station. Herb ex- W hibitcd the mail pull to time-^B*^”^B buyer at station party held v” _ • ~ recently at the New York offices of Capital Cities Broad- ■- ;, f casting. The Herb circles collected in this photo are (1-r) Jerry Gibson, John Blair & Co .; Miss Capital Cities; John Flynn and Mai Murray of BBDO; McCann-Erickson’s PhilStumbo; and Norm Ziegler of DCS&S. It’s vacation time for Street Sc Finney’s (New York) Sandy Floyd. He spent two weeks visiting with his relatives in Oklahoma. Inevitably think: If Aycr’s (Philadelphia) Charlie Ventura is planning another personal anti-politics when local election time is spinning again? ^Mendelsohn’s mail pull 40 SPONSOR/24 December 1962 *********** PERSON-TO-PERSON … modern radi** ^V ^h*measured for people, to people. A perfect blend of ingredients. . . brings together a full ^ kwnvtfV *• metric of various entertainment, news and ^ ^ i/ilil ^ ‘l + public service features. . . reaches and sells * ^ 1 person anywhere. SWANCO STATIONS are * ■ AJlJM l i * a buy word because they are “person-to-person.” * ^mm ^J ^People who listen like it. . . people *********** buy it, love it! SWANCO is; P0NS0R/24 DECEMBER 1962 -11 U.S.RADIO & TELEVISION L OWNERSHIP ES by state and county in September 1962 PART II The following data were compiled by A. C. Nielsen Co. as “practical estimates” of the size and location of total television and radio viewers in the U.S. according to states and counties, in September 1962. TOTAL HOUSEHOLDS are estimated by Sales Management, used with special permission. These were based on the growth rates that that publication applied to their own numbers on January 1, 1962. They were the basis on which the new television and radio ownership percentages were applied. TELEVISION OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGES are Nielsen estimates based on U. S. Census percentage levels in the April 1960, updated to reflect the conversion of non-television homes to television owners such as announced television penetration growth rates from sequential ARF-Census sampling studies during this period. RADIO OWNERSHIP PERCENTAGES were obtained in the 1960 Census and adjusted by a factor, derived from the Census Bureau’s resurvey appraisal study of radio ownership, to show the inclusion of sets that were out of order. TELEVISION HOMES AND RADIO HOMES were obtained by applying percentage of ownership estimates, county by county, to Sales Management estimates of total homes. These county’s individual estimates are primarily based on the 1960 Census, updated for just over two years of growth. They form the basis of television homes and radio homes used by A. C. Nielsen Co. . for use in estimating audience numbers for all Nielsen services, national and local. The numbers are available to broadcast by users in easy-to-use booklet form at %b per booklet. In this issue, data for Montana to Wyoming were reprinted. Part I came out in the issue last week, December 17th. 42 SPONSOR/24 December 1962 MONTANA COUP* 1 I TOTAL HOMES TELEVISION HOMES % RADIO 1 1 \ J IV1 to 70 Beaverhead Z.JUU 1,600 69 01 3 I Big Horn 2,500 1,804,000 2,500 1,800,000 73 1,800,000 73 600 1,800,000,000,000 760 95 Carbon 2,600 2,160 83 2,570 99 Carter Ouu 520 65 7^n Tia Cascade 23,600 21,530 91 22,700 96 Chouteau 1 “I 2,200 1,900 86 2,170 99 Custer 4,100 2,950 72 3,990 97 Sa Deer Lodge 5,100 4,590 90 4,860 95 Fallon 1,200 920 77 1,110 92 Fergus 4,200 3,120 74 4,120 98 Flathead 10,200 8,680 85 9,990 98 Pnllnt in Uaiiatm It J. 3

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